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JAN.14, 1886-APRIL 22, 1980


Dr. Ronki Ram

I congratulate you and highly appreciate your concerted efforts for celebrating the Birth anniversary of Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia, the Prophet of Dalit Struggle in Punjab in the early 1920s. He was one of the very few Dalit visionaries who correctly realized that the real salvation of the downtroddenlies in theirtotal social and cultural transformation.For that only liberation from the colonial masters would no besufficient. He was of the firm opinion that unless and until a systematic and all embracing struggleagainst the Brahmanical orthodoxy based on the Hindu Shashtric principle of purity/pollution is launched, the national struggle against the British rule would not serve the real interest of the millions of the Dalits, who had been subjected to all kids of marginalities and oppression for centuries. In fact, Dalits were the double victims: of the British rule as well as of the Upper castes of their own country. It was this thinking that looks him to organize the Ad-Dharm Movement in Punjab at a time when Mahatma Gandhi was also getting actively involved in the national liberation struggle in India. Babu Ji gave his people a new religion (Ad-Dharm) to believe in, Gurus (Rishi Valmiki, Guru Ravi Dass, Maharaj Kabir, and Bhagwan Sat Guru Nam Dev) to worship, a symbol (Soham) to display, and a slogan (Jai Guru Dev) to greet each other. He and his movement inculcated a sense of dignity and confidence among the Dalits of Punjab who since have been actively pursuing the cause of Dalit liberation both within the country and abroad wherever they havesettled.

I once again congratulate you and the entire <ambedkartimes.com> tribe for celebrating this GreatDalit Revolutionary of the20th century.


On February 13, 2011 Sunday 10:30am

On this day, Guru Ka Langar and Deg will be served to mark 125th birth anniversary of the Great
Adi-Dharmi leader and Frontline Gadhrite, Babu Mangu Ram Muggowalia. After the religious
ceremonies the guest speakers will shed light on Babu Mangu Ram Muggowalia Ji’s
great contributions to the Great society. For more Information: 604.435.9997
Posted on February 7, 2011


Dear Editor,
I would like to congratulate all the worthy readers of www.ambedkartimes.com on the occasion
of 125th birth anniversary of Babu Mangu Ram Muggowalia, a great freedom fighter and founder
of Ad-dharam movement in Punjab. Our society will be comodating this on Sunday January 30, 2011.
I would request all to join us celebrating 125th Birth Anniversary of Babu Ji.

Micheal Ghirra
President, (michealghirra@gmail.com)
Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha (Vancouver) Canada
( Posted on January 13, 2011)

Dear Editor,
I would like to congratulate all the worthy readers of www.ambedkartimes.com on the occasion of 125th birth anniversary of Babu Mangu Ram Muggowalia, a great freedom fighter and founder of Ad-Dharm movement in Punjab. Our society will celebrate Baba Mugowalia’s 125th birth anniversary on Sunday, February 6th, 2011. I would request all of you to join us on this occasion.
Shingara Singh Ralh (President)
Posted on February 4, 2011

Dear Shri Prem Kumar Chumber Jee,
On behalf of all my family members, I wish you very very Happy New Year 2011 and congratulations to all the readers of Ambedkartimes on Ghadri Baba Mangu Ram Mugowalia’s 125th birth anniversary. May God bless you and your family with all success and good luck in the coming year of 2011. I pray to God for very good professional education to your children so that they live with honor and pride in this materialistic western world. Thank you very much that you always give me a regard, being an old and white beard man of the community. I have only blessings and Ashirwad to give you and your family.

I have noticed that you are doing community work with enthusiasm. The God is always with those people, who are determined and want to do something for others. I have read issues of Ambedkar Times. The community is with you and always be with you. I may suggest you one thing that never be dishearted. The Rome was not built in a day. The hurdles make a man more determined to move toward his goal. Congratulations for the success of your internet work you are doing for over many years. Please go on doing what you want to do sincerely and you will get the reward ultimately for your sincere efforts.

Always well wisher of Chumber family
Azad Jullundhary, California ( Posted on January 14, 2011

Madho Balvira
( Italy )
Dear Editor
Sohang Jai Gurdev!!

A very warmest and heartiest congratulation on the auspicious 125th birth anniversary of Ghadri Baba Mangu Ram Mugowalia Jee who was the great founder of the Ad-Dharm religion and cast of Dalit Samaj I am very happy because if he did not do this, as today we hadn't had any social identity in any field. Nobody had property and fraternity, friendship and freedom. All the credit goes to Baba Mangu Ram Jee Mugowalia. So again very auspicious augury at the Baba Mangu Ram Mugowalia's 125th birth day celebration to whole Ad-Dharmi Samaj and especially warmest congratulation to Ambedkartimes, who is reviving the teachings of Baba Mangu Ram Mugowalia Jee in this world. Thanks. So in this occasion I am sending you a detailed article in Punjabi on Baba Mangu Ram Mugowalia Jee upon his 125th birth celebration.
Posted on January 13, 2011



Report by Dashvinder Paul

Pittsburg(California):- On Sunday January 24th, 2010 Sri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Pittsburg organized a function to celebrate 124th Birth Anniversary of Ghadri Baba Babu Mangu Ram Ji Mugowalia a great freedom fighter and the founder of Ad Dharm Movement in Punjab at the Temple. Speaking on this occasion, Giani Harblas Singh Ji, Santokh Ralh, Bhai Baldev Singh, Bibi Surjit Kaur, Gurnam Singh, Dashvinder Paul and General Secretary Kamal Dev Pall urged Sangat to follow the footsteps of Babu Mangu Ram Ji Mugowalia, who fought against the mighty British rulers to get the freedom of India and made his mind to liberate the downtrodden from the internal slavery of Varnashramdharma and started organizing a unique battle against the centuries old Hindu system of birth-based social exclusion. He founded Ad Dharm movement for the emancipation and empowerment of his people. He organized all the ex-untouchable castes falling under the then category of the Depressed Classes in Punjab and reminded them of their rich heritage when they used to be the masters of this land. Babu Mangu Ram Ji was very clear in his understanding that the real emancipation of the ex-untouchables lies in their efforts to revive their own indigenous religion (Ad Dharm). President Ram Parkash Raju and Chairman Satpaul Surila thanked the entire Sangat for their participation in this program. The “Ardaas" marked the end of the program Guru Ka Parshad was distributed followed by the “Guru ka Langar"

Posted on January 31, 2010


Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Fresno (California), Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Pittsburg (California) and Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Sacramento (California) proudly announce that we are going to celebrate the 124th birth anniversary of our great freedom fighter & the Founder of Ad Dharm Movement in Punjab, Baba Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia Ji on Sunday, January 24, 2010 at their Shri Guru Ravi Dass Temples. We are requesting to all come join us on the 124th birthday anniversary.

Posted on January 17, 2010


Jai Gurudev!

Congratulation to all the readers and writers of Ambedkartimes on the 124th birth anniversary of great revolutionary freedom fighter
and founder of ad Dharm movement in Punjab Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia,
Des Raj Bangar (Journalist) Fresno (California) USA


Jai Gurudev!

Heartiest congratulations to all the readers and writers of pioneer website “amberkartimes.com”, on the 124th birth anniversary of Babu Mangu Ram Ji Muggowalia, who was “True Devotee” of Ad-Guru, Shri Guru Ravi Dass Ji”. On this day, it is very important to keep this in mind that only person who, with the support of fellow Ad-Dharmis, struggled for us to get distinct identity was Babu Mangu Ram Ji Muggowalia, also to remember that we are “Ad-Dharmi” and our religion is “Ad-Dharm”. “Ad” means from the very beginning and “Dharm” mean “religion”. We should all be proud of Ad-Dharm’s accomplishments.

Proud Ad-Dharmi
Tejpal Gangar Burnaby, BC, Canada


Jai Gurudev!

On the 124th birth anniversary day of Dalit’s Massiha, broad-and-roared minded and a very great founder of AD DHARAM, BABU MANGU RAM MUGGOWALIA. On this very special day I would like to congratulate to all those who were/are attached to him, especially Mr. C. L. Chumber and Dr. Ronki Ram by this internet electronic Ambedkartimes News Paper- every man, associations and Sabhas get vast and detailed knowledge about our Adi Gurus, Dr. Ambedkar and Baba Babu Mangu Ram Muggowalia Jee etc. Also, I would like to say all those who are activated in the Ad Dharm Mission, attached with any Sabha and associations; all should determine to follow the teaching of Babu Mangu Ram Jee and these teaching we forward to our next generations for reviving it. Please come, we all together generate a powerful Ad-Dharm Mission’s light among dalits by which all next generations will have own AD-DHARMIDOM. I appreciate Ambedkartimes.com by which we share our own views. Once again congratulation to all Ad Dharmi on 124th birth anniversary day. Sohang! Jai Gurdev!!

Balvir Singh Sandhu (Madhobalvira)

100 Years (1909 2009) FOUNDER OF AD-DHARM
Hari Paul Randhawa Chief Editor “Begumpura Times” UK "Voice of Ad-Dharm"

Mangoo Ram was born on January 14, 1886 , in village Mugowal, Hoshiarpur district, where this father,Harman Dass, had left the traditional Chamar caste occupation of training and preparing hides and attempting to sell tanned hides commercially1. Mangoo Ram’s mother, Atri, died when Mangoo Ram was three, so the father began to depend heavily on his sons – Mangoo and an older and a younger brother for assistance. Because the leather trade required some facility in English, Mangoo Ram’s father was forced to rely on literate members of upper castes to read sales orders and other instructions to him. In payment for their reading instructions for an hour, he would have to do a day of crude labour. For that reason, Mangoo Ram’s father was eager to have his son receive an early education.

When Mangoo Ram was seven, he was taught by a village Sadhu (Saint) and soon after attended a variety of schools in the Mugowal area (Tehsil Mahilpur of district Hoshiarpur). He also attended school in a village near Dehra Dun , where his older brother has settled. In most of the schools, Mangoo Ram was the only Scheduled Caste student. He sat at the back of the class, or even in a separate room, and listed through the open door. When he attended high school in Bajwara, he was forced to stay outside the building and listen to the classes through the windows. Once when he came inside during a heaving hailstorm, the Braham teacher beat him and put all the classroom furniture, which he had “polluted” by his presence, outside in the rain to be literally and ritually washed clean. Nonetheless, Mangoo Ram was a good student: he placed third in his class in primary school. But whereas the other good students were encouraged to become patwaris (village record-keeper) or to seek higher education, Mango Ram was encouraged to leave school and help his father at a more proper “Chamar task”. In 1905, he did quit school; he married, and for three years helped his father develop their leather trade into a thriving business.

In 1909 America as in the air. Scores of upper caste farmers from Mangoo Ram’s area of Hoshiarpur had gone to the United States , and those who had not gone were talking about it. Mangoo Ram decided to go also. He persuaded his father that it would be good for the business – he would send money back from America – and his father responded by giving him some savings from the family business. Amid assurances from some of the local Zamindars (“landowners”) and two Chamar friends set off for the new world.2

The friends turned back, but Mangoo Ram persevered and arrived in California late in 1909. For four years he picked fruit for the former Zamindars of his village who had settled in the San Joaquin valley of California . He was also employed in a sugar mill. Mangoo Ram lived first in Fresno , then in Stockton , Sacramento , EL Centro , Vacaville , Visalia , and again in Fresno.3. He did indeed make money and set his savings home.

In 1913 some of the Punjabi settlers in California were forming a militant nationalist organisation. Mangoo Ram joined this group, the Ghadar movement, as a full-time worker in San Francisco . He was struck by the fact that, as he was later to say, “it was a new society; we were treated as equal”4. There were not many Scheduled Caste persons in the Ghadar movement, however; Mangoo Ram recalls only one other Chamar besides himself.

Initially Mangoo Ram played only a minor role in the organisation,, but in 1915 he volunteered to be one of five Ghadrites to participate in a dangerous mission involving smuggled weapons shipped from California to the Punjab . He was chosen for the task by the main whom he identifies as the “leader of the Ghadar” party at that time.” Sohan Singh Bakhna5. The secretary of the Los Angeles where they boarded an intermediary boat after collecting all their personal identification. For the rest of the saga, Mangoo Ram would be known by a Muslim pseudonym, Nizamuddin.

According to Mangoo Ram, the intermediary boat took them to the Socorro (sic) islands to rendezvous with the weapons boat, but after thirteen days military shop from Sydney, the “Man of War”, discovered the timely intervention of an American warship were they spared. They went to Vera Cruz, Mexico , to receive rations.

There they finally connected with their weapons boat, the Maverick; they joined the crew, took on giant turtles for food, and headed for India.7 They were halted again in Hawaii , where Mangoo Ram witnessed the eruption of volcanoes. Free again, they advanced a bit further, perhaps to Java or New Caledonia.8. There the Japanese, on behalf of the British, imprisoned them for one year. Eventually, the British decided to hang them, but at midnight the night before they were to be hanged at dawn, fate intervened. The Germans spirited them away in the dark, and the five went their separate directions – Harmans Dass and Charan Dass to Bangkok ; the others, including Mangoo Ram, to Manila .

But again, according to Mangoo Ram’s memory, the intervention of fate altered their plans. A typhoon appeared, and the ship went to Singapore instead, where British spies, Bela Singh and Bhag Singh, turned Mangoo Ram over to British authorities, who promptly ordered him to be placed before a cannon and shot. Again, however, the Germans whisked Mangoo Ram away, and again he was placed on a ship bound for Manila.9. When Mangoo Ram arrived in the Philippines he read a news report in the Manila Times indicating that he had been executed for treason b the British in Singapore . Mangoo Ram assumes that one of his captured colleagues had taken on his name to protect him, and that that man had been shot in his place. The news of his alleged death preceded him to the Punjab , where his wife heard the report and promptly married his younger brother, as custom dictated. In the meantime, Mangoo Ram was sequestered in the Philippines in a series of hideouts on various islands. Members of the Ghadar party were his benefactors during this period, and Mangoo Ram remembers fondly their hospitality and friendship: he was no longer an Untouchable but a comrade in distress.10.

The war ended in 1918, the Ghadar party was no longer quite the threat its was earlier when it enraged the British by compounding separatism with sedition through its liaison with the Germans. But Mangoo Ram decided to stay in Manila nonetheless. He met an American, a Mr Johnson of Marshall Field and Company (a department store in Chicago ), who hired him to work in an

Early in 1925 he set sail, this time on a more pleasant and uninterrupted trip. He arrived in Ceylon in the company of a Christian missionary he had met on board, then travelled through the subcontinent to the Punjab , visiting Madurai , Madras , Bombay , Poona , Sitara, Nagpur , and Delhi . He observed the conditions of the Scheduled Castes en route and was dismayed “to se our people being treated to badly”.12. At the Minaksi Temple in Madurai , for instance, he was told to be careful not to touch the Achhut (Untouchables): people assumed from his dress that he was of decent caste. By the time Mangoo Ram reached the Punjab he was convinced that there was need for social change, and wrote to Ghadar Party headquarters in San Francisco about the difficult conditions of the Scheduled Castes in India , announcing that their freedom was more important to him than that of the nation itself. According to Mangoo Ram, leaders of the Ghadar party at that point designated him to work for the uplift of the Untouchables 13. Thus, in a new context, the old revolutionary from Fresno continued the Ghadar spirit.

Late in 1925, after his return to the Punjab , Mangoo Ram began teaching in a primary school in his home village of Mugowal , a school which Mangoo Ram claims he named the Ad Dharm School. It was in that school, on June 11 and 12 1926, that Mangoo Ram convened the meeting that formally launched the Ad Dharm movement. Mangoo Ram was elected its first president, a title he was retained for the duration of the movement. Om November 1926, when the Ad Dharm organisation opened an office in the city of Jullundhar , Mangoo Ram took up residence there, where he remained until he became active in politics in the 1940s, at which point he moved to the town of Hoshiarpur . Later, the newly independent government of India presented him with some land near Garhshankar, not for away, which developed into a small farm.

In 1977, after the Ad Dharm movement had been re-established, and Mangoo Ram had been again elevated to leadership of the movement, his supporter sent him on a triumphant tour of communities of expatriate lower caste Punjabis in Great Britain . It was Mangoo Ram’s first major voyage since returning from America , half a century before. For him the occasion was one of nostalgia, but also one of completeness, for it enabled him to mark the closing phase of his long public career with a trip abroad, just as he had opened it in a similar way many years before. It was to be the last great event before his death on April 22, 1980 , at the age of 94.

The pattern of expatriate experience leading to nationalism and political activism when the expatriates return home is replicated in the personal histories of other leaders: the lives of Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo Ghose, Dr. B.R Ambedkar, the Ghadar militants, and other Third world figures such as Kwame Nkrumah and Ho Chi Minh. Seldom, however has a personal history held such dramatic extremes- from leadership in a secular movement to leadership in a religious one, from an anti-British to a pro-British stance (and then back again), from being a banished Untouchable to being an imposing political figure. The sheer diversity of Mangoo Ram’s colourful life would invalidate any claims he might have wanted village culture of the lower castes, but experience forged him into a modern man. Ultimately, his characteristics were modern were those of the movement he led and of the proud new breed of ex-Untouchable he came to represent.

Posted on July 30, 2009



"Those people are GREAT, who are awakened towards the duties in which they are born."...... Babasaheb Ambedkar the Great!

Dear Friends, Jai Bhim

The United Dalit Students' Forum UDSF is glad to inform that on the occassion of Babu Mangu Ram's Birth Anniversary, (14 Jan.), which  is celebrated  as  Self-Inspiration Day, a well known personality, Gail Omvedt,  will be there among us for a post-dinner talk at Chandrabhaga Hostel Mess by 9.00 pm on  January 14 , 2009. All are requested to be present on time for the programme. Thanks

In Mission United Dalit Students' Forum (UDSF) Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi .

Swami Achhuta Nand (Adi-Hindu of U.P.)


(6.5.1879 -22.7.1933 AD) 

By: C.L. CHUMBER Mobile: 91- 946 399 5087 <c.l.chumber@gmail.com>


Sawami Achhutanand (6.5.1879 -22.7.1933 AD) was the founder of the Adi-Hindu socio-religious movement concentrated in most populated U.P. state in India. There were four other contemporary revolutionary Adi-Movements of untouchable aboriginals of India. A Gadhrite Baba Mangu Ram Muggowalia’s (Jan.14.1886 - April 22, 1980 AD)  Adi-Dharm Mandal having H. Q. at Kishan Pura , Jalandhar city (Punjab) opened in November 1926 was active in greater Punjab ( present Pakistan’s and India’s Punjab , Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh ( U.T. ), Haryana and Delhi states ), Uttarakhand ( first branch at Chuharpur-now Vikas Nagar District  Dehradoon was founded in December 1927 as per the A.D.M. report 1931 AD ) , U.P.( first branch was founded at Varanasi City on April 19,1931 and others at Meerut, Lucknow, Allahabad, Saharanpur , Kanpur as per the A.D.M. Report 1931 AD ) , West Bengal ( first branch was founded at the bridge no.4 , Kolkata in 1928 AD as per the A.D.M. report 1931 AD ) , Rajasthan ( Adi-Dharmi is registered as SC in this state ) , J & K , , M. P. in India . The Adi-Dharm Mandal Report 1931 AD written by Baba Muggowalia and first ever translated from Urdu to Punjabi by myself published in the Bahujan Samaj Bulletin weekly’s Baba Muggowalia special issue of 12th Jan.1997. Shaheed-E-Azam Sahib Kanshi Ram was editor, printer and publisher and myself was the resident editor of this bulletin (released by Sahib Kanshi Ram on 16th Nov.1996 at a state level BSP rally at the Daresi Ground, Ludhiana and closed due to my plotted road accident at G.T. Road, Phagwara (District Kapurthala) Punjab in which my two lieutenants M/s Ashawni Kumar Shammi, Ali Puli Mohalla of Jalandhar City (Punjab) and Shusil Kumar Verma r/o Village Bohan Tehsil & Distt. Hoshiarpur were killed, six persons including myself, my wife Santosh Kumari, 11 year my son Jan Sangram Chumber were injured severely). The Adi-Dharm Mandal Report 1931 claimed their international network including in Malaya, U.S.A., Burma ( now Myanmar), New Zealand , Canada , Philippines , Africa , Fiji , Russia etc, The other Adi-Movements were Adi-Dravida of Madras state (now Tamilnadu) , Adi-Andhra of Andhra state and the Adi-Karnatka of Mysore state (now Karnatka) . These three revolutionary movements concentrated in the south India. These movements are ignored by the manuvadis as well as our manuvadi people. These revolutionary movements backed Dr. Ambawdekar (a brahmin teacher changed his name as Ambedkar) and confronted with Mr. Gandhi and Brahminism at national level. Dr. Ambedkar became a national leader with the active support of these non-Ambedkarite Dalit revolutionary movements. Dr. Ambawdekar `s party contested only in Bombay state in 1937 AD assembly election. I suggested Sahib Kanshi Ram to recognise the contribution of these revolutionary movements. I celebrated the Adi-Dharam Mandal’s platinum jubilee on 12th June, 2000 at the Desh Bhagat Yaadgar Hall , Jalandhar city by publishing in book shape first ever translation of Baba Muggowalia’s Adi-Dharm Mandal Report 1931 AD in Hindi and Punjabi languages .Then Sahib Kanshi Ram `s BSP celebrated Adi-Dharm Mandal’s platinum jubilee on 28th Feb.,2001 at the Roshan ground , Hoshiarpur. On my suggestion, he also celebrated the death centenary of Prof. Ditt Ram Gyani @ Prof. Ditt Singh Gyani (1850-1901 AD) of the Singh Sabha on 1st Sept.2001 at his ancestral village Kalaurh Nandpur District Fatehgarh Sahib ( Punjab). Sahib Kanshi Ram paid tributes to Baba Muggowalia in a Bahujan Samaj Day rally on his birthday on 15th March, 2003 at Shiva Ji park ground, Mumbai. He appreciated the contribution of Baba Muggowalia on producing more than 100 Adi-Dharmi I.A.S. / I.P.S. only in his Hoshiarpur District as compared to 64 of other castes! He also arranged public gathering in memory of revered Ayyan Kali of Kerala state                                                                                                                      

Now we come to Sawami Achhuta Nand Ji. His first ever name was Hira Lal. His guru and his relatives bestowed him with a new name Sawami Hariharanand. He was born on 6th May, 1879 at his maternal grandfather’s village Saurikh Tehsil Chhibramau District Farukhabad (U.P.) His father was Mr. Moti Ram and mother was Mrs. Ram Piari. His uncle Subedar Mathura Parsad helped him in education at Nasirabad, Ajmer (Rajasthan). His parents and uncle left the village due to some quarrel with the brahmins on caste basis before the mutiny of 1857 AD. They migrated to village Umari Tehsil Sirsaganj of District Mainpuri. Sawami ji’s father and uncle went to Dewali and joined the army. He was very brilliant in education. He left the school at 14. He was well versed with 8 Indian languages- Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian, Marathi, Bangla and Punjabi etc. He was married with Smt. Hira Bai. He had four daughters -! (Late) Sushila Bai married to (late) Mangal Singh Jatav, Tikonia, Murar District Gwalior (MP). Mr. Jatav was parliamentary secretary in MP govt. I met him on 19-20 August, 1989 in the Dalit Sahitya Akademy function at the Ravindra Bhawan, Bhopal. (2) (Late) Vidyawati married to (Late) Mr. Kalyan Chand Jatia r/o Farukhabad (UP) 3. (Late) Shanti Bai married to Dr. Thakur Chand Kain r/o Moh.Gulabwarhi , Jaswant Nagar, Etawah (UP) 4 . I could not get information. Swami Ji was a true feminist. His life is entirely dedicated to the untouchables. He dedicated his name also to the untouchables. But the thankless literate and illiterate, poor and rich untouchables forget him. Why? We talk of the honesty but we regard the corrupt due to our manuwadi thinking.   

He first worked with the Arya Samajists for the annihilation of untouchability as well as caste. But he was disillusioned soon .He started his revolutionary work separately. He went village to village and town to town to propagate education, he preached against dowry, child marriage and un-necessary expenses on death ceremonies. In 1917 AD, Sawami Ji went to Delhi and he jointly worked with the untouchable `s leader Vir Rattan Devi Dass Jatia, Jagat Ram Jatia. They founded the Achhut Maha Sabha. They also published a vernacular periodical. In 1922 AD, he met the Prince of Wales in Delhi. Swami Ji organised an untouchables` function, the Prince of Wales participated. Swami Ji presented a memorandum of 17 demands as below: - The Adi-Hindus must be given separate electorate and separate representations (.2.) For the progress of the untouchables, government must open schools and colleges. (3) There must be a strict law to annihilate the untouchability. (4) The educated untouchables must be absorbed in the govt jobs. (5) There should be nomination of untouchables in the municipal committees. District boards, village Panchayats, own areas, notified areas etc.( 6) The untouchables should be granted liberty to do business and shop keeping.( 7 ) There must be ban on forced labour.(8) There must be equal rights for untouchables as compared to the swarn Hindus.( 9 ) There must be untouchables` representation in government and non-government committees proportionate to their population..(10) There must be stipends for the untouchable students. (11) There must be colleges for the untouchables where theirs population is density. (12) There must be recruitment for untouchables in the police and army. (13) There should be increase in the labour rate. (14) The Chowkidars of the villages should be untouchables. (15) The untouchables must be allotted land on lease. (16) There should be representation of untouchables in the state assemblies. (17) The above demands should be implemented in the princely states also.

He participated in the Jatav Sammelan in 1922 AD at Delhi and gave some revolutionary suggestions. In 1925 AD, he settled at Benajhabar, Idgah and Kanpur (UP). Mr. Girdhari Bhagat donated him residential plot. He launched the Adi-Hindu in Hindi paper. In 1927 AD at Kanpur, he said in a public conference," We dalits also demand a complete Independence as the Hindus and the Muslims demand. We are the rightful owner of the independence.” Sawami Achhutanand met the Simon Commission on 30th Nov.1930 at Lucknow with his comrades M/s Tilak Chander Kuril, Girdhari Bhagat, Laxman Parsad, Karorhi Mall Khatik etc.Dr. Ambawdekar was a member of the Simon Commission. Sri 108 Sawami Achhuta Nand Smark Smiti (UP) published the Photostat copy of hand written Dr.Ambawdekar`s letter dated 3rd Feb.1932 to Swami Ji in which Dr. Ambawdekar accepted him as his Guru. They first of all met in 1928 AD in the Adi-Hindu conference. Sawami Ji also met the Lothian committee in 1928 AD at Lucknow. In 1930 AD, he telegrammed in support of Dr. Ambawdekar and Rao Bahadur Sranivasin, the two untouchables at the Round Table conferences at London (UK). Swami Ji also raised voice for the “Achhutstan" Swami Ji was a signatory of the Puna Pact signed on 24th September1932.

The Hindus wrote  a book against Sawami Ji under the title "SAWAMI JUTANAND ".The writer of this book later was nominated as president of the Congress of UP state.. Mr. Hira Lal s/o Mr. Mohan Dass Karam Chand Gandhi, the rasharpita of the Hindu-Rashtar came to allure Sawami Achhutanand but Sawami Ji showed a stale piece of loaf from his pocket .Sawami Ji asked Hira Lal how he dared to test his devotion towards his people.

He wrote six books in Hindi—(1) Shabuk Balidan (Drama) in this book Sawami Ji exposed Hindu Bhagwan Rama for killing innocent pious Saint Shambuk! ( 2 ) Mayanand Balidan ( biography ) ( 3 ) Achhut Pukar ( Voice of the untouchables )-Religious songs ( 4 ) Pakhand Khandani ( Heterodoxy refuted ). (5) Adi-vansh ka danka (drum of the aborigional people)-poetry (6) Ram rajya nyay (justice in the reign of king Rama)-drama.  Swami Ji worked hard day and night. He was sick for 23 days and died on 22nd 1933 at Kanpur. He was buried in opposite PS Nazirabad, Nai Zamin, Lajpat Nagar, Kanpur (UP).                                                                                                                       

I  (C. L. Chumber  c.l.chumber@gmail.com , cl_chumber@yahoo.com ) was the main speaker of `Sawami Achhutanand` s ( 6.5.1879 -22.7.1933 AD ) 129th Birthday Function on 6th May, 2008 on the ground of Sawami Achhutanand Samadhi Sathal opposite PS Nazirabad , Nai Zamin , Lajpat Nagar, Kanpur. Mr. Ravinder Patani, Mayor, Kanpur Municipal Corporation(Chief guest), Mr. Partap Singh, Judge.( Retd.) presided over , S. Sukhwinder Singh Bhalla (Ladi) ex member ,the Minorities Commission of UP state performed opening ceremony, Mr. Anil Sharma ex Mayor and Mr. Shiv Kumar Beria M.L.A. were Special guests of honor.. M/s Rajinder Kuril, president, Ramesh Chander Kuril Councillor / General Secretary Mr. P. Lal, Mr. Jai Narain Kuril, J. P. Sonkar, Dr. Hira Lal, Kailash Dhiman, Sowaran Singh were main organisers of this function.

I delivered my speech on this socio-religious revolutionary Sawami Achhutanand who founded the Adi-Hindu Movement to achieve equality, liberty, fraternity and justice for the under privilege untouchable Indian citizens. On 17th September 1922 at Delhi and the Indian government recognized it in 1923 AD. He proclaimed 7   main commands of the Adi-Hindu Movement. (1) I have faith in the oneness of God. God is immaculate, sinless, eternal, infinite, amorphous, unborn, timeless, omnipresent, peerless and true! God has neither religious book nor ever incarnated on earth .God has no statue; God is omnipresent in the universe. And God’s flash is luminance within me and God’s perception and my actions accordingly is my religion. (2) I believe that I am Adi-Hindu being aboriginal Indian and that is why I am not the owner of the Indian country! Our duty is to develop our primitive land now called as India and it is my foremost duty to establish here the rule of the truthfulness and justice. (3 ) I have faith that the religion of the ( medieval period Bhakti Movement `s) Saints are India’s Adi-Dharm and being full with humanism, is the really blissful religion ! (4) I have faith in that all are equal and have brotherhood. The thinking of gradation and degradation on the basis of clans, sects and varnas is deluding. A person is graded by his/her virtues and degraded by his/her misdeeds. God lives in a person’s true heart. And that is why the behaviour of equality with each person is the prime religion. (5) I have faith in that to abstain from sexual instinct, anger, greed, attachment, pomposity and postulate thoughts is the religion of mind! To abstain from falsehood, bitter, backbiting, denunciation and useless talk is the religion of voice! And to abstain from violence, prostitution, gambling and intoxication is the religion of the body! That is why I will try my best to follow this universal blissful religion by thoughts, speech and actions for my salvation. (6) I have faith in the grate Saint Kabir`s teachings that all the Brahmin-scriptures are based on selfishness, falsehood and injustice! And theirs laws of religious scriptures etc. are the causes of the downfall of Hindus! That is why, I make commitment to denounce completely the Brahmin devtas, incarnations and brahminized religious discourses treating false and decadent! And I will never neither perform birth, tonsure, marriage and death brahminized ceremonies nor by brahmins! (7) I will highlight my forefathers `high character and the glory of the Adi-Vansh (aboriginal-clan) by efforts continuously. I will encourage our intellectuals to write books on our forefathers. I will be active to commemorate them by arranging public functions and for the educational, technical, economic, social, political, physical, and psychological development of our Adi-Hindu brothers continuously.

As I main speaker of the function advised the gathering not only make shoes but also beat unconstitutional elements with shoes as weapon because the governments had no time to annihilate caste system . I also suggested the gathering to arrange inter-caste and inter state mass marriages programme. The chief guest of this function also condemned "the Swami Achhutanand" book and writer. Later on , people added to my knowledge that the Utter Pradesh government published a book on silver jubilee of the so-called independence in which the writer wrote derogatory and unconstitutional remarks against Sawami Ji. The people resented. The local Hindi press covered this function with news and color photographs. WE ARE PROUD OF SAWAMI JI, HIS PHILOSOPHY AND HIS HIGH SPIRIT TEAM!!!!!

Posted on www.ambedkartimes.com (June 11, 2008 )

Jai Guru Dev, Dhan Dhan Guru Dev!

Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia

JAN. 14, 1886 - APRIL 22, 1980



Ambedkartimes.com pays floral tribute to Ghadri Baba Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia, the founder of the Ad Dharm movement in Punjab , on his 28 th death anniversary.

Prem Kumar Chumber


Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia (1886–1980), whose death anniversary falls on April 22, 2008 , was the pioneer of the anti-untouchability movement in colonial Punjab . A former Gadharite, who spent the formative years of his prime youth fighting against the mighty British imperialism in foreign lands, after reaching his native village made himself busy in organizing a unique battle against the centuries old Hindu system of birth-based social exclusion. He founded Ad Dharm movement for the emancipation and empowerment of his people. He organised all the ex-untouchable castes falling under the then category of the Depressed Classes in Punjab and reminded them of their rich heritage when they used to be the masters of this land. He told them how they were reduced into worse than slaves in their own land by the alien Brahmins who brought with them their sick social system called caste and started them whipping with the whip of untouchability. He told his people that for us the real battle is the battle against the Chaturvarna system of Brahminical Hinduism.

He openly declared that Scheduled Castes are neither Hindu nor Sikh. They are also neither Muslim nor Christian. They are the original inhabitants of this ancient land called Bharat. Their real religion (Ad Dharm) was much older than Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism. All these religion born after Ad Dharm religion of the original inhabitants of India . He said that the Hindus did not only subjugate them but also made their religion oblivious; and thus made the ex-untouchables their slaves. He said that our real freedom will be to liberate ourselves not only from the British rulers but also from Brahmanism. He got special right from the Britishers by adding Ad Dharm to the Census list as a separate religion of the Depressed Classes in Punjab in 1931. A great victory of the Dalits indeed! Babu Ji also became the pioneer of seeking political power as a key to all the problems of the community. In 1937, his Ad Dharm won 7 out of all the 8 reserved seats in Punjab .

Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia's movement was not only confined to Punjab . He stood like a rock with Dr. Ambedkar. During Dr. Ambedkar's fight with Gandhi at the Roundtable Conferences in London (1930-32) Babu Ji sent telegrams in support of the former as the leader of the untouchables in India against the latter (Gandhi). In 1946, Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly and remained in legislature till 1952.  

He was very clear in his understanding that the real emancipation of the ex-untouchables lies in their efforts to revive their own indigenous religion (Ad Dharm), and in worshipping their own Gurus (Guru Namdev Ji, Guru Ravidass Ji Maharaj, Guru Valmiki Ji Maharaj, Guru Kabir Ji Maharaj). No other religion can liberate the Dalits from the quagmire in which they have been straddled for centuries except their own original religion "Ad Dharm".  

< www.ambedkartimes.com> pays floral tribute to Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia, the founder of the Ad Dharm movement in Punjab, on his 28 th death anniversary.

Posted on www.ambedkartimes.com (April 22, 2008)






The seminar is dedicated to Indian fathers of the affirmative action programs

Dr. Ambedkar, Periyar, and Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia 

By Jai Birdi

Burnaby : In response to the Indian Supreme Court’s recent decisions on the reservation policies, Chetna Association of Canada has planned a seminar to discuss merit of Indian reservation policies of India .  The seminar is dedicated to Indian fathers of the affirmative action programs Dr. Ambedkar, Periyar, and Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia.  The seminar will be on June 7 at 6 pm and it will be at the Dr. Ambedkar Library, Guru Ravidass Community Center , 7271 Gilley Avenue in Burnaby .  All are invited to attend this seminar.  Admission is free.

“I am pleased to host the seminar on one of India ’s most progressive, yet controversial, social policies”, said Surinder Ranga, president of Chetna Association.  To contribute to the debate, the association has invited Surrey ’s radio host Gurpreet Singh, and social activists from Punjab , India , Om Parkash and Vidya Devi.

In addition to the seminar, the association will screen Monica Sallan’s documentary film, “The Caste Problem”.  The Toronto-based film maker provides a brief overview on the structure of caste hierarchy and relates to the recent episodes of caste-based violence in India .  Surrey-based artist Shital Anmol will also donate his painting of Gadhari Baba Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia to the Dr. Ambedkar Library, which will be a welcome addition to many of his paintings that are already displayed at the library.

(Posted on www.ambedkartimes.com (June 03, 2008 )



C. L. CHUMBER Email:c.l.chumber@gmail.com

I congratulate in advance Mr. Jai Pal Virdi, office bearers, members and supporters of the Chetna Association of Canada for organizing a seminar on Manuvadi “Caste System” on June 7 th, 2008 at Burnaby (Canada). They dedicate this seminar to Gadharite Baba Mangu Ram Mugowalia (Jan 14 th, 1886-April 22 nd, 1980) founder of the Adi-Dharm is a centenary of his sojourn to USA in 2009. I am indebted to all the NRIS of USA who joined the Gadhar Party founded in April, 1913 AD including Baba Mugowalia Ji Maharaj.

I still hope that Canada, UK, USA’s NRIS have a Gadharite spirit. They are struggling day and night to strengthen the Indian economy. Mr. Harbans Singh Hira, President, Adi-Dharm Brotherhood, Birmingham, UK of Moranwali (Hoshiarpur) and his team is active for the last 30 years or more. Mr. Prem Kumar Chumber, editor of www.ambedkartimes.com and his team celebrated Baba Mugowalia’s birthday in 2008 AD in all the Adi-Gurdwaras of Adi-Guru Ravidass Ji in Canada and USA. This is a healthy development which must be carried on to unite the Indian aboriginals whether they live in India or in any other country.

Mr. Caryle wrote “A nation that does not worship its great leaders and heroes soon comes to Grief.” I again thank my younger brother Mr. Prem Kumar Chumber and his family for uniting us by the www.ambedkartimes.com. Thanks to all.

C. L. CHUMBER (Ex Tehsil Welfare officer) Chief Editor:Kaumi Udarian Email:c.l.chumber@gmail.com

Posted on www.ambedkartimes.com (June 07, 2008 )


Journalist Prem Kumar Chumber is presenting a Picture of Great Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia to Mr.Kewal Bolina (President of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Sacramento, California, USA), Mr. Hans Raj Kajla (Secretary), Mr. Tawinder Kazla (Vice Chairman) & Mr. Satish Kumar Ralh (Ex Stage Secretary) at Shri Guru Ravi Dass Temple, Rio Linda (California) on Sahib Shri Guru Ravi Dass's 629th Gururpurb day, March 12, 2006.

Journalist Prem Kumar Chumber is presenting a Picture of Great Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia to S Gurbachan Singh, the president of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Selma, California (USA) in the presence of sangat on April 02, 2006. Standing sangat: Rajinder Singh Gangar, Bhai Harjinder Singh Rassia, Sukwinder Suman, Dev Raj Singh (present President of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Selma) Mrs. Gurbachan Singh, Narender Chumber, Takshila Chumber & others.

Journalist Prem Kumar Chumber is presenting a Picture of Great Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia to Mr. Lahori Ram, Economic Development Commissioner, California in the presence of sangat at the Shri Guru Ravi Dass Temple, Pittsburg, California (USA) on Sunday (May , 2006) .Standing Sangat: K. D. Paul (Presidemt, IBO California), Daswinder Paul (President, Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Pittsburg, California), Ajay Kataria (present, President Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Pittsburg, California), Balvir Mall (Chairman, Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Pittsburg, California), Sewak Dass, Satpaul Surila, Jagat Jaggi, Ram Ralh, Kundan Pall, Salinder Bhatia, George Bhatia, Giani Harblas Singh, Kamaljeet Surila, Jaila Jaggi, Giani Ball Singh and Jarnail Dugh & others.

Journalist Prem Kumar Chumber is presenting a Picture of Great Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia to Mr. Vinod Kumar Chumber (President of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha, Bay Area, Califormia, USA) in the presence of sangat on May 21, 2006. Standing Sangat: Amrik Chand Lakha (President of Dr. Ambedkar Educational Aid Society Fremont, California, USA), Sucha Ram Bharta, Balbir Singh Shinmar (General Secretary of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha, Bay Area, Califormia, USA) & others community members.

Journalist Prem Kumar Chumber presented a book Religious rebels in the Punjab (written by Prof. (Dr.) Mark Juergensmeyer) to Mr. Bansi Lal Bangar, the president of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha (C.V.) Fresno, California (USA) on Sunday, Feb.11th, 2007, the 630th birth day celebration of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Ji. Standing Left to Right: Baldev Suman, Chairman Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Bay Area, San Francisco California, Vinod Chumber, the president of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Bay Area, San Francisco California, Des Raj Bangar, Secretary of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha (C.V.) Fresno, California , Sonu Ambedkar (K.K.Saroya) Vice President I.B.O. California, Kewal Bolina, the president of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Sacramento (California), Balbir Mall, Chairman Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha Pittsburg (California), Piara Singh Virdi, Assistant Secretary of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha (C.V.) Fresno, California , Bhai Avtar Singh Maheru Head Garanthi of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Temple (C.V.) Fresno, California, Karam Singh Bangar, Chairman of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha (C.V.) Fresno, California, Parmod Loi Gen. Secretary of Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabha (C.V.) Fresno, California.

Prem Kumar Chumber is presenting a photo of Ghaddri Baba Babu Mangoo Ram Muggowalia to Shingara Singh Ralh (President Shri Guru Ravi Dass Temple, Yuba City) & standing: Left to right Mohan Gill, (Behind Davinder Ralh), Sukhveer Heer, Charan Singh, Gurbachan Chopra & Parshotam Sood.

After we hung the picture of Mugowalia: Charan Singh, Davinder Ralh, Mohan Gill, P.K. Chumber,Shingara Singh Ralh & Sukhveer Heer

Prem Kumar Chumber is presenting a book "Religious Rebels in the Punjab" (Written by Dr. Mark Juergensmeyer) to Parshotam Sood (Chairman Shri Guru Ravi Dass Temple, Yuba City) standing: L. to R. Gurbachan Chopra, Dayal Ram Nar, Mohan Gill, Davinder Ralh, Charan Singh & Sukhveer Heer.

Prem Kumar Chumber Journalist is presenting a book "Religious Rebels in the Punjab"
(Written by Dr. Mark Juergensmeyer) to Indo American Cultural Organization California on October 1, 2006


Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia
And Ad-Dharma Movement

Ishwar Das Pawar,
District & Sessions Judge (Retd.)

While recalling the significance of the role of the Ad-Dharma movement launched by Babu Mangu Ram of Mugowal in the year 1926, for espousing the cause of the Untouchables of the pre-partition Punjab, we must remind ourselves of the circumstances prevailing in those times. For, since then tremendous changes have taken place in the social, political and administrative fields, and not many of the present times may have a precise idea of the harrowing conditions and environments in which our people found themselves.

Till about the mid-twenties there was no social and political awakening among the untouchables. People had been fed on the deceptive and demoralising Brahmanical philosophy that the Untouchables were born as such not by any coincidence but because of their accumulated bad deeds committed in the past lives. As a consequence, they were disentitled to get education, to own and possess property, to take to professions and avocations of their own liking and choice, and to a place of equality, honour and dignity in society. This was the divine dispensation. It was dinned into their ears day in and day our that this was not due either to their own fault in this life or to the fault of society that they were born in the lowest and wretched castes, and, therefore, they were made to suffer untold hardships and punishments under the edict of the Almighty for their past sins. Out of sheer ignorance these misguided and gullible people tacitly accepted their cursed fate foisted on them by the clever sort. For their woeful sufferings they would beat their foreheads in utter helplessness and say pathetically that it was due to their inevitable fate and destiny. It never occurred to them, and there was none to tell them, that they were being duped and cheated by the uppermost strata of society who were interested in keeping them under their feet. They could not understand why others who were leading most sinful lives before their very eyes were enjoying all comforts of life both good and bad. The good deeds of the ignorant and unsophisticated people of this life were of no consequence for them in this life; they were being stored and preserved for consideration in the life to come. It was a very cunning ruse played on the ignorant and deprived people.

There was none among the Untouchables to raise the banner of revolt against this aggression, oppression, tyranny, deception and exploitation of the poor and the ignorant committed behind the facade of religious philosophy. There, however, appeared on the scene an inspired soul in the person of Babu Mangu Ram of Mugowal, who came back from America after a decade’s sojourn there. There he was a member of the Ghadar Party formed by the Indians living there to supplement the struggle of freedom launched by the nationalists here.

On reaching home Babu Mangu Ram founded an organisation under the name Ad-Dharma Mandal. Soon a band of enthusiastic and devoted workers gathered around him. The message brought by Babu Mangu Ram was new inspiring. It was aimed at awakening the Un-touchable. The message called upon them to know and realise themselves as they had forgotten their true selves due to the hostile influences in which they had been living for thousands of years. It caught the imagination and hearts of the oppressed and down-trodden people and soon Babu Mangu Ram’s name became a household word. He succeeded remarkably well in creating awareness and awakening the people. His path was beset with difficulties and he had to work against odds and trying circumstances. Financial difficulties apart, he and his co-workers were chased everywhere and hounded out of bound out of bounds of towns and villages by the Hindus, and quite often they had to hold their meeting and conferences in open fields. One such incident also took place at Una. A weekly “Adi-Danka” in Punjabi was also started to carry the message to every nook and corner of the province. This was the beginning of the struggle for getting back the human rights of which they had been deprived of for centuries. Wherever Babu Mangu Ram went, the people were eager to have a glimpse of their beloved leader and benefactor. He did the pioneering work to awaken the people. My own relations with him had been very close and cordial. From my college days I had been attending meetings of the Ad-Dharma Mandal and also occasionally contributing small articles to the Adi-Danka.

In the crucial days of the Round Table Conference held in London in the early thirties for the purpose of hammering out a new political set up for our country, Babu Mangu Ram worked enthusiastically shoulder with the greatest leader of the underdog, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who was representing the Untouchables of the County at the Conference, to strengthen his hands in his historic struggle for securing political rights for his people on the basis of their being a separate and distinct political entity.

Babu Mangu Ram will be long remembers as the devoted pioneer in the crusade against social and political injustice. He fought relentlessly even in the face of crippling heavy odds for the achievements of the goal. Whatever rights we have been able to snatch so far is entirely due to these great men.

There is needed to look back lest we should forget our benefactors-the brave soldiers who fought our battles.

Courtesy: Souvenir, 1985 Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia 99th Birth Anniversary, By Mr. C. L. Chumber


Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia combined in his personage the qualities of a fierce revolutionary, a staunch patriot, a devoted crusader against social evils and above all a true humanitarian through and through Born among the lowliest of the low, he crossed all social barriers dauntlessly and suffered all sorts of indignities of life and made his way to reach the pinnacle of gray.

Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia represents a rare example among the revolutionaries Ghadrite philosophy. In those dark days, it was rare for an untouchable to understand the essence of revolution against imperialism. But he rose to the occasion and proved his mettle. He joined the Ghadar Party when he went to California (U.S.A.) in 1909 A.D. as its active member, Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia; it appears desired an establishment of society which must be based on Equality. And he saw one being fought for by the Ghadarites as they had abolished all social distinctions among themselves first-which, perhaps, is not the practice with the modern community or who profess change of the sort. As Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia spoke of the Ghadar Party, "It was a new society; we were all treated as equals".

As a Ghadrite, he took part in the Organizational activities at first but in 1915 A.D., an occasion came when he volunteered to be one of the five Ghadarites in a dangerous mission involving smuggled weapons shipped from California to the Punjab. Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia was chosen by the leader of the Ghadar Party at that time. Mr. Sohan Singh Bhakna, the Secretary of Ghadar Party, whom Babu M.R. Mugowalia remembered as "Godha" sent the five to Los Angles, where they boarded an intermediary boat, after depositing all of their personal identifications with "Godha", for the rest of the journey's saga, Mangu Ram would be known by a Muslim pseudonym, "Nizamuddin."1 Putting his life into danger and traveling through Secrorro Islands and halting at Mexico, Caledonia Islands, and Manila, Singapore and again to Manila where he stayed for sometime and finally to India where he reached in 1925 A.D.

It is after 1925 that this career as a crusader against untouchability and casteism began. As he traveled from Ceylon to Punjab through Madurai, Madras, Bombay, Poona, Sitara, Nagpur and Delhi, he observed the condition of the untouchables on route and was dismayed to see these people being treated so badly. In Madurai, when Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia visited the Meenakshi Temple, he was told to be careful not to touch Achhut (Untouchables) since they assumed by his dress that he was of a decent caste. By the time Babu M.R. Mugowalia had reached the Punjab, he was convinced that there was need for social change.

Babu M.R. Mugowalia wrote to the Ghadar Party headquarters in San Fransisco about the difficult conditions of the Untouchables in India. He wrote them that their freedom was more important to him than Indian freedom. According to Babu Mugowalia, leaders of the Ghadar Party then disengaged him to work with Scheduled castes (Untouchables), and wrote him that they would support him in his tasks. Thus, in a new context, the old revolutionary from Fresno continued the Ghadar spirit. This clearly shows that even Ghadarites had realized the need to awaken these slaves of Indian Society - the then untouchables.

When he started his task of social reform i.e., establishing schools for untouchables poors, he began to look for an alternative which may provide a lever for the unity of the untouchable poors and then to demonstrate through that alternative the political presence of the untouchables in the politics of Punjab of those days. It must be remembered that Punjab was already witnessing political up haul and each class was trying to reap at political harvesting. Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia, along with other conscious men from his class, then founded on June 11-12, 1926 A.D. at his village Mugowal Ad-dharma as the alternative. Ad-Dharma's main aim was to create a feeling of identity among the untouchable class which numbered at that time about one fourth of the entire population of India.

Babu M.R. Mugowalia and the early leaders of the Ad-Dharma perceived their first task to be the creation of a new religion. In their initial meetings, even before they developed an organisational structure, they labored over a basic ideological theme upon which they could build a system of religious ideas & symbols. Its central motivation was novel: the idea that untouchables constitute a qaum, a distinct religions community similar to those of Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs, and that the qaum had existed from time immoral. It was a myth of power addressed to the people without power. It was intended to communicate the sense of strength that Babu M.R. Mugowalia felt belonged to his Caste fellows by right. As he explained, partly stating a fact, partly expressing a hope, "The untouchables have their powers: communal pride (qaumiat), religion (Mazhab), and organisation (mazlis), "The hope was that / these powers could be fostered and spiltered through force of ideology.

Ad-Dharma was almost Babu M.R. Mugowalia's show. It inspired the lowliest of the low to fight for equality, economic, social and political in a converted way. The Ad-Dharma, under the dynamic leadership of a true revolutionary like Babu Mugowalia, was a aggressive and autonomous movement or compared to similar movements that took birth in other parts of the country. Within a short span of time, it jolted the "haves-not" through its rallies, publications, deputations and demonstrations to demand new government policies or to protest upper caste discriminations. The most influential political action of the movement that can be listed as one of its great achievements was to get Scheduled Castes registered as followers of new religion. In the 1931 A.D. Census, almost half a million of them registered as "Ad-Dharmi" rather than Hindus or Muslim or Sikh. Mr. Mark Juergensmeyer writes as "Later in the 1930, their political influence turned towards electoral politics, in alliance first with the predominantly Muslim Unionist Party and then with the congress"2 It was the logical consequence of the political awakening created among them by Ad-Dharma movement in Punjab, whose undisputable leader was Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia.

Thus through several means, then, the Ad-Dharma presented to its followers a vision of a world which both confirmed and transformed the rude experience of untouchables. And in doing so it implied that a different sort of world was coming into being, for the separate identity so defined signaled hope for a society in which social groups carried no inherent mark of judgment and in which the benefits of progress could be shared by all, Cultural & humanistic aspects of the personality of Babu M.R. Mugowalia were even more glaring. As a humanist his vision of the world was near to rationalist view of the universe (we can even say materialistic as well as through in rudimentary form), he believed in the inherent equality of all human-beings; he was against all sorts of exploitations of man against man; and he earnestly devoted his bodily energy and financial resources in founding a New Society based upon the gospel of equality. His ideas about the universe and equality of all men are echoed in the Ad-Dharma Mandal (1926 to 1931) report in the preparation of which Babu Mugowalia had played a big role. It reads as follows: "Nature (Qudrat Ka Mela) created human beings from original source (Adi) at the time that it created all beings in the earth. The knowledge of moral behaviour (karm-dharm) was also given to them at that time by Nature. Nature made humans superior than animals, but among humans all were equal.

In the beginning, when Nature created human beings, there was no discrimination. There were no differences and no quarrels. In particulars, there were no such concepts as high a law caste. God (Ishwar) was mediating; all was in harmony. Everyone believed in one dharma which Nature had given then through intellect and knowledge." Babu M.R. Mugowalia did not mean by the world 'God' as something supernatural beings who is said to have created the world and since then regulating it as is believed in theology. Mark Juergensmeyer makes quite clear in his work.

Religion as social vision, 1 thus; "Occasionally there is mention of God in a more formal sense": "God (Ishwar) was meditating; all was in harmony." And Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia made a practice of using the name Adi-Purkh for the divine-literally "the originator", Or the original Being." All these designations, although they are theistic terms, are impersonal in intent.4

He, all his life, stood like a rock against social evils such as untouchability, caste-system, women, women slavery, exploitation etc. etc His life in cultural side symbolized with the creation of new social virtues such as women's rights, the value of education, abstinence from alcohol and drugs - which were 'nothing less than a new concept of moral order,' Thus Babu M.R. Mugowalia, a Ghadrite revolutionary, social crusader, political activist and strategist and as an humanitarian fought for the establishment of an ideal society till he breathed last. The noble way of commemorating celebrating the 99th Birth Anniversary (for that matter every birth anniversary) of Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia - who desired his movement to coin-side with Ambedkarite movement to give the movement of depressed classes a country - wide statue, is to emulate him. Therefore, let us resolve to emulate. The great Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia - a patriot, social revolutionary, a successful strategist and, above all, a humanist.

Courtesy: Souvenir, 1985 Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia 99th Birth Anniversary, By Mr. C. L. Chumber

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