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S. L. Virdi Advocate

Civil Court Phagwara
Ph. 98145 1749

All of these articles by S. L. Virdi
First Woman Teacher of India Krantijot Savitri Bai Phoolay
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar : Burnt Manusmriti On December 25th 1927,
Black Laws of the Manu Smriti AgainstDalits and Women
Sahib Kanshi Ram Ji addressing huge rally
Messiah of Humanity : Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Indian Constitution

Prominent Writer S. L. Virdi Advocate's Visit for Social Reformation

Prominent writer and activist Dr. S. L. Virdi Advocate, before leaving for the Eastern Countries in order to accomplish is mission, told that he will attend the 54th anniversary of Dhamma Kranti on 17 Oct, 2010 at Auckland in New Zealand and will present his views on the topic "Light of Asia". On 19 Oct, he will interact with listeners of Radio Punjab on the topic "Punjabi Culture & NRIs". On 23-24 Oct, he will give away the prizes to the winners of national games organised every year by the Dr. Ambedkar Sports Club, New Zealand. Dr. Virdi will share his views on "Problems of Young Students of Punjab & NRIs" at Hastings on 30 Oct. On 31 Oct, he will speak on the topic "Relevance of Yog Vashisht in the Present Era" at Guru Ghar in Bombay Hill. After interacting with the people on "Globalistion, Liberalisation & Privation" in Seminar organised by Shaheed Bhagat Singh Charitable Trust, he will meet the NRIs in Parliament of New Zealnand. Advocate Virdi's Contact No. in New Zealand is 006421945745.
Posted on October 13, 2010

Vienna Firing Episode Dalit Assertion-
A Revolt against Discrimination
S. L. Virdi Advocate

On May 24, Sant Niranjan Dass Ji, Head of Dera Sach Khand Ballan (Jalandhar), his successor Sant Rama Nand and their followers were attacked by some Manuwadi elements in Shri Guru Ravidass Temple at Vienna City of Austria. Dera Head Sant Niranjan Dass was injured, his successor Sant Rama Nand was martyred and many followers were severely injured in the firing. As a reaction Dalits made a ravished show of their anger through violent demonstrations in Jalandhar, Phagwara, Hoshiarpur, Phillaur, Muktsar, Malot, Ludhiana, Amritsar cities of Punjab, Ambala, Yamunanagar, Jagadhari, Kurukshetar, Ladwa and Shahbad of Haryana and Jasur and Nurpur Cities of Himachal Pradesh.

This anger of Dalits which burst out on Vienna Happening is not emotional extremism of one caste or sect but is a ‘Class War’ by socially, religiously, politically and economically backward people to prove their existence, ability and power against the age old established superiority of upper castes. Though its immediate cause is religious but there is a need to keep traditional religious beliefs aside in order to properly understand these new demarcations happening in the social structure of Punjab. Chief Architect of Indian Constitution Dr. Ambedkar said, “You remain our masters, it may be beneficial for you but what benefit we have in remaining your slaves”. That’s the feeling working behind the anger of Dalits. To ignore it would be to ignore the naked live electric wire. That’s why the present scenario demands for a deep and thorough analysis and research in this field.

Neither there is any role of any political party behind the anger of dalits nor is it something like seasonal mushrooms after rains. The lack of democratic human values is the major aspect of this whole matter. The bonds of dalit youth with its established leadership are rapidly dissolving. The reactions on Talhan, Khairlanji, Gohana and Vienna episodes have clearly proved that leadership is moving in the hands of youth. These happenings have also proved that the educated dalits and writers who are clear in their thought and vision are no more ready to be satisfied with mere promises.

Historical role played by Dera Ballan

As far as Dera Sach Khand Ballan is concerned, the majority of its followers are dalits because the Dera preaches the mission and philosophy of Guru Ravidass. Sant Niranjan Dass is Head of the Dera. This Dera is in Doaba Region which accounts for about 50% of total Dalit Population in Punjab. 80 % out of them are Ad-Dharmi. This Dera has lakhs of devotees. Many Indian emigrants are also attached with Dera, who have helped in construction of Shir Guru Ravidass Temples in England, America, Canada and many other European nations. Apart from Punjab they have Deras in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and some other states. The biggest Dera is in Ballan. People are attached very devotedly with this Dera.

          It is pertinent to mention that the founder of Dera Sach Khand Ballan 108 Sant Sarwan Dass was born in low caste at village Gillpatti District Bathinda in Punjab. His father 108 Sant Pippal Dass left this village and come to the village Sarmastpur in Jalandhar district. Sant Sarwan Dass was put in school at Kishan Garh where he was discriminated due to his low caste status. 

          In the early years of twentieth century, the life of the dalits was full of sorrows and miseries. They were not allowed to enjoy the human rights. Natural law, social freedom and equality were denied to the dalits in Punjab the province of Bharat now India. Dalits were considered hereditary slaves, polluting others. They have to walk at a distance from the upper caste people.

          Dalits could not drink water from a common well. Water was poured to them through a five feet parnala (pipe). Their cups were separate in caffe house and they had to clean themselves. For education schools were closed for them. They were living as a “Rijat” and were given an ignorable place in the society.

          In these circumstances Sant Sarwan Dass Dera Sach Khand Ballan (Jalandhar) Punjab not only revolted against social evils but also challenged the supremacy and hegemony of the brahamins. Countering the brahaminism, first he established his own Dera at Ballan, opened a pathshala (school) for the low caste people and started teaching them, even against the will of the upper caste people.

          Sant Sarwan Dass started a langar (common kitchen) in pangat (equal line) in his dera for all caste, creed and religions for establishing a casteless and classless society. Then upper caste people objected and demanded a separate system. Swami Sarwan Dass asked them to go any where, no body would be allowed to practice a discrimination in his dera (Begampura) which is a symble of equality, liberty, fraternity and justice for all mankind.

Dera has opened various charity hospitals, schools, colleges and service centers at different places. Dera is running 200 Bed Sant Sarwan Dass Charitable Hospital at Kathar ( Hoshiarpur Road), Eye Hospital at Ballan and Sant Sarwan Dass Memorial School at Hadiabad, Phagwara. Dera also publishes a weekly paper ‘Begumpura Shehar’in three languages Punjabi, Hindi and English. The Chief Editor of this weekly was Sant Rama Nand. That’s why the anger of dalits after Vienna firing episode is very natural.

These happenings in Punjab no doubt occurred after the Vienna episode but there are Talhan, Khairlanji and Gohana happenings before it. There is a comprehensive history behind all these happenings which can be understood only as a chain of unending injustice, discrimination and unbearable exploitation in social, religious, political and economic fields. Dalits are undergoing animal existence even after 63 years of independence. The landlords not only make them to work hard like animals but also exploit their mothers and sisters. Any refusal from this slavery and forced labour results in punishment not to a single dalit only but to whole dalit community by socially boycotting them. As a result anger arouses in dalits which sometimes burst out like a volcano. Apart from Vienna Happenings, the following causes are also responsible for the anger of dalits.

Dalits comprises half of total population in Punjab. According to Chairman of Delimitation Commission, Justice Kuldeep Singh 40% (S.C 32% + Rai Sikhs 6% + Converted Christians 2% + Buddhist- 44724) of the total population of Punjab is only of Scheduled Castes. According to a report on survey conducted with the help of Economics Department of Punjabi University, 81% of Dalit population lives in Villages and 19% in Cities. Out of them 41.9% people know reading-writing and rest 59.1% are totally illiterate. These Dalits own only 2.34% of total irrigated land. They have per capita annual income of Rs. 3277 which comes out to be Rs. 273 per month. In the houses of 90% of the village labourers no one is educated upto 10th Class. Only 2.44% of agricultural labourers have facility of a Motor Cycle or Scooter. Only 5% families have concrete houses. Rest of labourers spend their lives in clay built or semi concreted houses. Their inhabitation is out of the villages, separate from upper castes. Normally their houses are near cremation grounds or burials. That’s why the living standard of these hard-working people is very low.

Whichever Government Rules, Dalits are Always on the Edge

Central Government waived the loans of farmers worth Rs. 60 thousand crores. It benefited 4 crore farmers having land up to 5 acres. 3 Lakh farmers in Punjab got benefit of 2 thousand crores. Congress Government lowered the prices of Auto Cars but poor dalits remained yearning for some relief. There is nothing in budget for poors, whereas according to Planning Commission, every state is to fix and provide an amount as per the population of dalits in the state for Scheduled Castes Special Component Plan out of Annual Growth Plan. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh selected 4 Central Ministers in the present cabinet from Punjab but did not select anyone as Minister from 40% dalit population of Punjab. Dalits are full of anger out of this injustice, caprice and whip.

In State Assembly Elections in February 2007 Akali Dal had promised on the title page of their election manifesto that 400 units of electricity per bill would be given unconditionally free to every Dalit (Scheduled Caste and Backward Class) family. But now by putting the condition of monthly income of 2 thousand rupees and 1 kilowatt meters, about 95% dalits have been devoid of this benefit. On other hand landlords having land worth crores of rupees have no condition on free supply of electricity and water. The story does not end here, last year Akali Government spend merely 125 crores for half population (i.e. Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes) and for free supply of electricity and water to landlords, it spend 2470 crores and 1680 crores respectively. Why dalits should not be angry.

Poor had been promised that flour and beans will be provided to them at rate of Rs. 4 and 20 per kg respectively. But after winning elections 75% dalits were thrown on margins and devoid of benefits. Only 10% of deserving dalits are getting the benefit. The farmers having land up to 3 acres are also getting benefit of this scheme, whereas if some dalit has gone to country like Dubai by taking loan etc. he is devoid of the benefit of this scheme.

Chief Minister S. Badal has made about 20 promises like providing scholarships to dalit children, houses and toilets for dalits, job to one member of family and establishing Dalit Development Board on page 8-11 of his election manifesto. But whatever declarations have been made till now, are favouring the landlords, aristocrats and businessmen. Even if any declarations for dalits are made, the conditions imposed on them have devoid dlaits of enriching any benefits out of them. Why Dalits should not be angry.

In Assembly Elections of February 2007, total 46 M.L.As from Akali Dal won, out of which 22 were Jats. Out of these 22, 10 are cabinet ministers and one is speaker in the assembly. Whereas on ticket of Akali Dal and BJP 15 Dalit M.L.As also won, out of which S. Gulzar Singh Ranike and Chaudhary Swarna Ram are only two ministers. All the profitable Departments like Electricity, N.R.I, Home, Justice, Vigilance, Housing and Urban Development, Employment, Legal and Constitutional Matters, P.W.D, Agriculture, Education, Revenue, Finance, Water Supply, Information, Irrigation and Food Supply have been given to non dalits. Dalits have been given the charge of Social Welfare and Animal Husbandry. This is also a cause for annoyance of Dalits.

All profitable Chairmanships like PUDA, GMANDA, Rural Development Board, Basic Structure Development Board, Planning Board, Health System Corporation, Agro, Tube well Corporation, Land Development Board, Science and Technology, P.R.T.C. Corporations are will the upper castes. Dalits have been given only 2-3 chairmanships. The Chief Secretaries, Advocate General, Finance Commissioner, Transport Commissioner, Commissioners of important posts like P.W.D., Rural Development, Health, Home, Personal, Water Supply all are upper castes and Dalit officials have been dragged on the margins. Even after having 40% population of dalits, in 20 districts of Punjab only 1-2 S.S.Ps and D.Cs are Dalits.

Akali Government appointed upper caste people in 12 District Planning Boards as chairmen and Vice-Chairmen. Only 1-2 Vice Chairmen are Dalits. Out of Mayors of 5 Muncipal Corporations in Punjab in Jalandhar, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Patiala and Bathinda, not even a single is Dalit. No Vice Chancellor in 8 Universities situated in Punjab is Dalit. This also is a cause of Dalits’ anguish.

Janjua Report which was detrimental to the interests of dalits was implemented for the first time in whole country by Akali BJP Government but the 85 th Constitutional Amendment which safeguarded the interests of destitute dalits was not being implemented, because of which the dalits servicemen were full of anger.

If any farmer commits suicide, his family is compensated with 2 Lakh rupees and government job to one member of family. If some dalit dies or commits suicide due to poverty, unemployment, starvation or burden of debt, there is no compensation for him. A landlord having any quantity of land may use as much electricity and water as he wishes without paying any bill but the charges of electricity and water for others have been raised. Why dalits should not be angry?

If farmer suffers loss of produce due to any natural calamity like floods, rains, hailstorms etc. he is compensated at least Rs. 50,000 per acres. If any dalit suffers loss of house, death of poultry or pet, loss of work for 10-15 days out of any such natural calamity, there is no way out for them except to suffer slavery, exploitation and starvation.

Central Government is not implementing the Component Scheme meant for the benefit of dalits. Central Government’s Narega Guarantee Employment Scheme for 100 days is deliberately not being implemented properly. Inflation keeps on rising every year but wages of dalit labourers are not increased. That’s why dalit labourers are full of anger.

14 States have established Labour Welfare Boards on the directions of Central Government. Haryana Government has collected 100 crore rupees of the welfare of labourers but Akali BJP has deliberately not established Labour Welfare Board. A Youth Development Board, two for businessmen and four for industrialists have been made, their chairmen have been given the posts of ministers. But no Dalit Development Board has been established for 40% Dalit population even after making a promise for the same in the elections. Dalits are in anger out of this reason.

Government is spending 3000 crore rupees for the construction of twenty five storied air-conditioned hotels but has reserved only 5 crores for the construction of houses for dalits and that too is pending. No land has been granted to dalits for wastage but the places already used by them for the same are being encroached upon.

The prize money for Shiromani Award for literature has been increased to Rs. 5 Lakhs. This is good but all these awards are always given to the upper caste’s so called literary figures. Dalits like Gurdas Ram Alam, Sant Ram Udasi and Lal Singh Dil are ignored and depressed. For this reason the anger in Dalit writers is also on its extreme.

Congress Government failed to establish Guru Ravidass University. It is painful that the government officials are discarding and segregating the name of chief architect of Indian Constitution Dr. B. R. Ambedkar from the ‘Baba Sahib Dr. Ambedkar Technical University’ which was established through an enactment by Punjab Legislative Assembly on 24 th December 1996.

 The Central Government Report has cleared the stand of these political parties which boast for their work for the welfare of Dalits. Punjab according to report has 29 th position in the welfare of dalits. Punjab which was once amongst front liners for the welfare of dalits has now become last runner. According to this report the objectives which were fixed for dalits have not been achieved.

Present Situation of Dalits in Punjab

On taking the charge at helm of affairs, the Punjab Chief Minister, S. Parkash Singh Badal while addressing 54 th session of N.D.C in the Vigyan Bhawan demanded for summoning a special session of National Development Council for finding out an answer to the problems of Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes and Other weaker sections of the society. He said that though nation has achieved 9% of growth rate, but its benefit is not reaching to the poor at the ground level. The one-third population of country is leading life below poverty line and survives on Rs. 20 per day. The planning of development should aim at reducing the differences and variance among the states, urban and rural people. There should be overall development of whole the country taking all the country together.

According to a report of Punjabi University about 70% Dalit Labourers are under the burden of loans. Out of them 70% have taken loans from landlords and 25% from petty shopkeepers in the villages. In majority of cases loans vary form one thousand to twenty thousands rupees. To discharge the burden of these loans is not getting possible for these dalits and they are continuously being pressed and exploited by the money lender, particularly big landlords.

Age old flowing tears if not wiped becomes acid. Acid when falls burns everything. Any kind of starvation is bad. The appetite of stomach is worst. But the appetite of mind is dangerous. The appetite of stomach produces heat. Any meal eaten absorbs this heat. But when appetite of stomach is not satisfied, its heat enters the mind. When it once enters mind, no meal can satisfy it. Then it exaggerates to its extreme and takes everything in its ambit. Talhan, Gohana, Khairlanji and Vienna episodes are results of extremism of this heat.

When Volcano erupts even the mountains shatters and there is no limit to its anger. If the anger of dalits busted again no system or power will be capable of stopping and controlling it. This country, society, Government and World at large should take notice of the misery and plight of dalits. Pride and prestige of dalits should no more be challenged and tested. The seeds of revolution are inflaming in their hearts. Presently it is being given the form of words and therefore literature- Dalit Literature is emerging as a result of it. It it will be ignored any more, then this volcano would erupt not words but iron and the only result will be Revolution! Revolution!! Revolution!!!

Suffering Dalit Society has four kinds of reactions against the exploitation and cruelty-

1.To silently endure this exploitation and cruelty and consider it their destiny. 2. To avoid it by moving from village to urban slums. 3. To commit suicides to avoid this. 4. People having self respect take to armed struggle.

Government tries to crush them forcefully. It results in violence. They also answer this force through violence. But violence is not an answer to any problem. Government should solve the problems of dalit society after understanding them well. Otherwise the Talhan, Gohana, Khairlanji and Vienna Episodes will continue to happen. Many Phoolan Devis and Veerapans will keep on taking birth in dalits. That’s why the proper notice should be taken of the sorrows, exploitation and needs of Dalits.

Posted on June 22, 2009

Dear P. K. Chumber Ji:

Congratulations for launching "Ambedkar Times" . It is needed now for Dalits. You are already doing a great service through your web sites www.ambedkartimes.com & www.ambedkartimes.org . We wish you all the success and extend our support to you.

Dr. S. L. Virdi Advocate
Posted on March 24, 2009

Book Review:

Dalit Sahit Ate Sabhyata, Writer : S. L. Virdi Ádvocate
Pages : 288, Price : Rs. 150/-

Reviewer : Dr. S. S. Narula (Principal)
D. Litt., P.E.S. (I) Retd., Ex-Member Executive Board,
Sahitya Academy , New Delhi (India)

Dalit literature is rather a nasent movement in India , and it has not been comprihensively present inliterary anthologies or in isolated book from for the simple reason that critical opinion in India or even abroad has been dominated by academicians who are prejudiced against the very concept of Dalit Literature. Such acadamicians argue that it is improper to divide literature on the basis of colour, caste and creed. They however, turn a blind eye to the facts that right from the times of Panis onwards the Sanskrit Scholars with their caste prejudices have always ostracised the literature written by non-brahminical authors and even now the literature of the various regional languages is neglected as the result of te pride and prejudice of the Kuleen (lergely caste ridden Brahamins). They forget that literature is not mere a verbal marval of a Davalya (Temple alloted to Brahamnical Gods and Goddess) but a human document describing day to day social political changes in society. Such a view is based upon the belief that every now and then the most meek and humblest refuse to be cowed down and rise in revolt against those who contradict then onwards by their foul deeds. Such movements are vital outbursts of creative energy and shake the very foundations of society based upon clan contradictions.

Any student of India 's literary history is well acquinted with such movements as those started by Budha, Jain Mahavira or the Bhakti movements, sense dominating Brahamnical or Kashtriya class inclusion with ruling Jantra falsified the Indian heritage. They successfully suppressed the voice of the oppressed classes and got their hirelings to sing their praises or such tribute a Lure classic like the Balmike Ramayana by an improvised Ramayana of Tulsidass to suit their class interests.

In modern India, however, under the western impact and spread foliberal humunization under the influence of Nineteenth Century-English Liberalisation and the impact of the Americans Ideal of the rifhts and claims of individual striving for rights of free expression, such enlightened the souls as Dr. Ambedkar gave a new message which was picked up by the Maharashtrians and Gujrati writers of Dalit Literature, rise the exponents of Re-Mat Movements in Gujrat. The greatest exponent being Dr. Romesh Chandra Parmar who started PANTHER and whcih was followed by AKROSH, KARO SORRY, GARUD, DALIT BANDU, NAYA MARG and DISA. This journalistic movements not merly dealt with Topical, it produced literary genecises like Mangal Rathod, Josepth Macwan, Mohan Parmar.

These writers unearthed the Dalit Gods and Goddesses burried under the historical debris; Rawan, Eklavya, and discovered that Buddha had his own Sudarshan Chakra. Their quest for the Golden age, led them to Mohan-Jodaro and Harappa and the Caves of Bhinubetkar.

It is, unfortunate that Punjabi Dalit Literature have not been given a countrywide exposure because of the Hindu Punjabi controversy and because the suppression of a minority like the Sikhs, who had always the Advocates of the Dalits. The founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak was proud to call himself, "The most down trodden of all the down trodden" and Guru Robind Singh as a Guru Chela accepted baptisim at the hands of the PANJ PYARAS.

It is heartening to note that the Dalit literary movements, has been given a Fillip by the Dalit Sahitya Sammelon held on the 13the and 14the of March, 1994, at Phagwara. This summalen received the massages of good will and sympathy besides blessings from such eminent personalities as the Hon'ble Vice President of India and the eminent Political Activist Madhu Dand Vate, besides scores of Dlit writers and Dalitcoprates from all over India . The sammelon was organised by S. L. Virdi, Advocate, 'a Dalit Activist for over two decades with his glorious record of selfless service to the cause. Mr. S. L. Virdi has brought out a Dalit Sahitya and Sabhaita (Dalit Literature and Civilization) which contains search papers, presented at the Sammelon and the gist of observations made by such eminent participants as Dr. S. S. Narula, D. Litt. and Ex-member of Executive Board of the Central Shitya Academy, Prof. Piara Singh Padam, Punjab Govt-Shiromani Sahityakar and fellow Punjabi University Patiala, Dr. Mahip Singh, Suchetna Fame, Smt. Banso Devi, Prof. Tarlochan Bhatti and Dr. Inderjit Singh Wasu besieds many others. It is very encouraging to note that all the research scholors imspite of differences of opinion have not been enmeshed in polemies of an unsavoury kind, which usually spoil the atmosphere of cordially and due to which the most of the issues discussed at a Seminar are merely talked out. Besides the scholary papers presented at the conference. The book contains poems and mini short stories and lokayan an ecdates. All this had made the book more savoury and polatable. The Editor has worked very hard to bring it hame to the readers. That the war with literary is "Elite" establishment must go on and be fought out with relenless detemination. The book has an attractive get-up and free from all the devils printer. There are practically no mistakes of proof reading. Sh. S. L. Virdi, Advocate has done a commendable job and deserves all proaise for his Promethian venture and Herculian efforts.

Posted on November 08, 2008

Special Article on Narayana Guru’s Birthday
Revolt of Narayana Guru
Dr. S. L. Virdi

Shree Narayana Guru was born on August 26, 1854 at Vayal Varam House in Chempazanthy, a village ten miles north of Trivandrum, the present Capital of Kerala in southern India. His name was Narayana, but was called Nanu by his parents. Nanu belonged to a middle class Ezhava family. His father’s name was Madan Asan and His mother was Kuttyamma

Human Rights, social freedom and equality were denied to the dalits in Kerala but on the other side the higher caste Hindus had various privileges, an untouchable was obliged to go out of the way of a higher caste man. Parayas, Pulayas etc. were considered as hereditary slaves. The slaves and the depressed classes were denied basic rights and often subjected to severe punishment. The Ezhavas were regarded as polluting other higher castes from a distance ranging from twenty to thirty feet.

Ezhavas, Pulayas, Parayas etc. were not allowed to go near the temples of high caste Hindus though the temples were managed by the government itself. Each man of lower caste had to pay a tax for the hair if he grew on his head and each woman had to pay a breast tax.

The life of the Dalit untouchables was full of sorrows and miseries. They were used as slaves for agriculture and industry. The untouchables were excluded from temples and public places, denied a cup of tea in cafés, refused services by dhobies and barbers. Justice was also a matter of caste affairs. The same crime committed by an untouchable was severely punished but it was not even considered a crime if attempted by an upper caste person.

The Dalits had no opportunity to educate themselves; the Savarnas (high castes) controlled the educational institutions. The children of the Dalits were kept out of the institutions.

One of the social evils prevalent in those days was that women of lower castes were denied the right to wear blouses or any other garments. Another injustice that prevailed was that anyone who wanted to enjoy privileges like wearing gold ornaments, using certain types of clothes, head-gear or umbrella, growing moustaches etc, had to pay the King prescribed rates to obtain licenses.

According to Hindu social practices, Dalit women could not covered their breasts in Kerala (a province in India). Dalits could not wear slipper and had to tie a broom on their backs so that the thoroughfhare on which they walk would be clean, after they had walked over it.

They had to tie a mud pot around their necks. They could not walk on the common roads. If woman by mistake covered their breasts, their breasts used to be chopped-off by the upper caste Hindus. A dalit Narayana Guru revolted against these practices then high caste Hindus resorted to violence.

Ezhavas, once an untouchable community made touchable by the Sanskritization movement of Sri Narayana Guru, form about 30%. They formed the single largest caste group having no share in the administration of the State. He transformed the whole Ezhava community and gave them a distinct identity and self-respect.

Posted on August 24, 2008

Dr. Ambedkar and Dalit Human Rights
Dr. Ambedkar’s Kala Nasik Mandir & Mahad Talab Morcha

The emergence of Ambedkar on the national political scene almost coincided with the emergence of Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi as the numero no leaders in the Congress Party, which was the forefront of the struggle for independence from the British. While Gandhi was more focused on the political freedom from the British, Ambedkar was keener on the “social freedom” of the Dalits and other lower caste from the clutches of Brahmanism as a precursor to the Britishers granting political freedom to the Indians. While Gandhi’s argument was that first to get freedom from the Britishers then the problem of caste will be solved.

Having returned from London Dr. Ambedkar was given a high post in Baroda. When he reached Baroda no one came to welcome him. Worse still, even the servants in the office would not hand over the files to him. No one in the office would give him water to drink. He could not get a house to live in. On account of his low caste, he was refused a place on rent. He asked the Maharaja and also the chief Minister but all in vain. Then Dr. Ambedkar adopted a Parsi name and rented a room in Parsi Guest House. When the Parsi learned about his caste they came armed with batons and attacked on Dr. Ambedkar. He tried his best to get a room, but could find no shelter. He had to resign the post and returned to Bombay. The fire of wrath against the Brahminical system blazed in Ambedkar mind. He sit under a tree and pledged as under:

“If I fail to do away with the abominable thralldom and inhuman injustice under which the Class, into which I was born, has been groaning, I will put an end to my life with a bullet.”

Dr. Ambedkar started his revolt against the Brahmanism by founded a bahiskrit Hitakarini Sabha in 1924 for the upliftment of Dalits (Shudra and Ati Shudra.) He started Marathi fortnightly the “Mook Nayak” which means the leader of the dumb. Through this paper he awakened the Dalit to fight for their rights. He burnt a copy of the Manu Simriti in 1927, the sacred code of the Hindus. He has done it to arise a feeling of self respect and self confidence among the dalits and to caution the Hindus that they must be prepared for equal civil rights to the dalits.

Dr. Ambedkar started direct action and launched marches to enter the Kala Ram Mandir in Nasik and drank water from the public tank at Mahad in Maharashtra. By this acts of the agitation, Dr. Ambedkar wanted to remove the mental dormancy of his people on an all India level. Dr. Ambedkar asked dalits to resist boldly all the acts of social tyranny. “Goats! Lions are not sacrificed. Strengthen the organisation of the depressed classes all over the country as it is the only way for salvation.”
The Problem of Indian Dalit servile class was the lack of human personality, self respect, clothing, shelter and bread. At the time of Mahad agitation Dr. Ambedkar declared that they launched the Mahad Talab agitation not for mere water. We reached there to prove that they were also the human beings. They wanted to have a decent life.

Dr. Ambedkar exposed the congress and its ill designs. Gandhi’s argument was that once they get the freedom, the Indian can rectify their own social structure. But on the other hand Dr. Ambedkar had a first hand experience of the Brahminical mind set. He very well knew that once the upper caste Hindus laid their hands on the political power they would usurp all the powers and enslave the dalits. That is the reason Dr. Ambedkar opposed the demand of Swarajya from the British. Gandhi was more focused for the political freedom but Ambedkar was keener for the social freedom for the dalits.

When the Simon Commission visited India in 1928 Dr. Ambedkar demanded separate electorate representation for the depressed classes. In the Round Table Conferences held in 1930, 31, 32. Dr. Ambedkar played a historical role both for the Independence of India and for the political rights for the Dalits. Addressing the Round Table Conference under the chairmanship of British Premier Mac Donald in London on 12th November, 1930 Dr. Ambedkar said:
“My poor Untouchable brothers live in a condition worse than slaves. Slaves were at least touched by their lords, but our very touch has been deemed a sin. Not even the British government has been able to do anything for us. Formerly, we could not take water from the village well; we cannot use it even today. Formerly, we could not enter the temples; even today we cannot do so. Formerly, we were not recruited into the police and military, even today we are not, one hundred and fifty year of British rule has done nothing to change our condition.”

Dr. Ambedkar’s demand raised a hue and cry throughout the Country. Gandhi-Ambedkar controversy ensued. It was against the wishes of the Congress and Gandhi that Dr. Ambedkar was invited to the First Round Table Conference in London along with R. B. R. Srinivasan to represent the depressed classes, where in Congress liberals, the other Indian parties and the princes of the states had also participated.

It was during the Round Table Conference, that the British and the world, had for the first time a chance to hear the horrible inhuman treatment being meted out to the people belonging to the Backward Class communities by their Hindu counterparts and the depth of the evils described by Ambedkar. No decision could be taken on the issue of right of the depressed classes in the sub-committee of the Round Table Conference. The matter was therefore, left to the Britishers to decide the issue and the Congress along with Gandhi promised to abide by such decision.

Dr. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi’s approach and attitude towards the Dalit problem and exhorted that the problem of the dalits, is a political problem and demanded reservation of seats in the legislature and the election for them should be through separate electorate.

Dr. Ambedkar’s speech and his role in the 2nd Round Table Conference created tremendous effect and impact on the British Prime Minister and his colleagues.

The result of his efforts and service there was the announcement of Communal Award, which provided the reservation of seats and separate electorate for dalits, Scheduled Castes in the future legislature. By this announcement of communal Award, upset and frustrated Gandhi undertook fast to death. His fast was resented by Dr. Ambedkar and the Scheduled Castes in India

Dr. Ambedkar denounced Gandhi’s fast as opposed to the rights and interests of the dalits, Scheduled Castes. Dr. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi’s fast as malicious, misconceived and disastrous to the rights of the Depressed Classes. He, therefore, asked Gandhi, “Why did he not undertake such fast for the abolition of the untouchability? And against the practice of it by the caste Hindus? He questioned the propriety of his fast at this juncture when the dalits, Scheduled Castes were given the separate electorate by the British Government, while he had no grievance for separate electorate in favour of the Muslim and Sikhs? The depressed classes of India arose in one voice, supporting Dr. Ambedkar and condemning Gandhi’s stand against the separate electorate for dalits.1
The leaders of Congress and the leaders of Hindu Society like Pandit Madan Mohan Malvya who attended
1 Justice Dr. Kottapalli Punnayya, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Memorial Lecture, Page 9
The 2nd Round Table Conferece along with Gandhi held a conference under his Presidentship on 19th September 1932. They invited Dr. Ambedkar to speak. Dr. Ambedkar asked them to give alternative proposal, if they were interested to save Gandhi. He made it very clear that in the absence of alternative proposal from Gandhi I would not be party to any proposal that would be against the interest of my people.
The war waged by Dr. Ambedkar with Gandhi for separate Electro rare ended with Poona Pact was really a historical fight for securing constitutional rights to Scheduled castes. Through this fight, Dr. Ambedkar secured Constitutional recognition and an honorable place for the Scheduled Caste in the ensuring government of India Act of 1935 and in the country.



When Guru Ravi Dass born in low caste revolted against casteism: the eighth worst wonder. Wayed a relentness war against the brahminism in the medieval age. At that time untouchability was at its full swim. The tyranny agianst the untouchables was unbearable. They were debarred from acquiring education and knowledge, proper ty and wearing cloths. Their shadow would pollute the high caste to be considered. On denial, one is punished according to Manu’s law:

“If he (the shudra) recites (Vedic texts), his tongue shall be cut out. If he is insolent enough to give lessons regarding their duty to the brahmins, the king shall order hot oil to be poured into his mouth and ears. With whatever limb a man of low caste offends against a brahmin, that very limb of him shall be cut off; such shall be the atonement of his crime.

Guru Ravi Dass not only vehemently condemned the caste system but also criticised the originators, and declared it a man made phenomenon. He declared that not by birth does one becomes an untouchable and brahmin. All human beings born equal. He preached equality, liberty, fraternity and justice and stood for the human rights of the persecuted people.

Guru Ravi Dass countered the brahminical falsehood with his Satnam means truth. He declared that in past truth was truth, today the truth is also the truth and tomarrow the truth will be also the truth. He advised the people that one can enjoy a comfortable life by adopting a Satnam Marg i.e., controlling his mind and nerves also leaving vekars (ill-wills).

Guru Ravidass not only condemend the brahmans’ special ritghs but struggled for the equal rights for all human beings. He started blow couch-shell, wearing sacred thread, tied dhoti, shopping in the market and launched a march to Ganges river for drinking pure water.

Brahmins lodged a complaint before the king that human rights are denied to the untouchables. According to their religious Dharma shashtras Ganges is reserved only for the brahmins. The king ordered his soldier to arrest the Ravi Dass and produced him before me. He was arrested and produced in the court. Brahmins repeated the same. In defence Guru Ravi Dass argued that the so called upper caste brahmin are the invaders and they themselves are the natives. After entering in India they subjugated the civilized Indians destroyed our civilisation, Satjug-Begumpura-the caste and class less society and imposed their barbarian way of life on us. In this way the brahmins with their political domination not controlled only our basic necessities and civil rights but intellect also. Then all the natural resources belongs to us. They not bring these with them. If they are feeling polluted here, then they should must be returned to their native place or country. After listening the arguments of the Guru Ravidass the king got fully satisfied and released the Guru Ravi Dass from prison.


First Woman Teacher of India Krantijot Savitri Bai Phoolay

In the middle of 19th century one of the most respected personality, father of the Indian Social Revolution Jyoti Rao Phoolay and his life Partner Krantijot Savitri Bai Phoolay revolted against Brahminical system and hegemony of the Brahmins in all spheres of life. An incident in 1848 made young Phule aware of the inequities of the caste system and the predominant position of the Brahmins in the social set-up. As a bridegroom was being taken in a procession, Jyotiba was accompanying him along with the relatives of this friend. Upon knowing that Jyotiba belonging to “Mali” caste which was considered to be inferior. The relatives of the bridegroom insulted him for taking part in that auspicious occasion. This incident triggered young Jotirao’s impressionable mind to defy the caste system and to serve the Shudras and women who were deprived of their rights as human beings under the caste system throughout his life.
Jotirao Phoolay and Krantijot Phoolay boldly attacked the stronghold of the Brahmins, who prevented others from having access to all the avenues of knowledge. They denounced them as cheats and hypocrites. They organised the untouchables and women and started the anti-Brahmin movement. They opened schools for the untouchables and women and gave the message of equality then high caste Hindus ostracized him and demolished his house. Phule launched a jihad against the priesthood and brahminical supremacy with a deep sense of commitment. They declared that social slavery is worst than political slavery. Phoolay wrote a book Gulamgiri for the salvation of Shudras and Ati Shudras in which he gave a clarion call to the Shudras and Ati Shudras for waging a decisive war against social system of the Hindus. They formed a Satya Sodhak Samaj for this purpose.



Black Laws of the Manu Smriti Against
Dalits and Women

Manu divides Hindus into four varnas i.e. casteism. He not only divide Hindus into four varnas, he also grades them. Besides prescribing rank and occupation Manu grants privilege to swarnas and imposes penalties on the shudras.The status of the Shudras in the Hindu society as prescribed by Manu the Law-giver and the Architect of Hindu society. There are so many Codes of the Manu Smriti against the Shudras and Women which are below:

1. For the welfare of humanity the supreme creator Brahma, gave birth to the Brahmins from his mouth, the Kshatriyas from his shoulders, the Vaishyas from his thighs and Shudras from his feet. (Manu’s code I-31,)

2. God said the duty of a Shudra is to serve the upper varnas faithfully with devotion and without grumbling. (Manu 1-91) Manu is not satisfied with this. He wants this servile status of the Shudras to be expressed in the names and surnames of persons belonging to that community. Manu says:

3. Let the first part of a Brahman’s name denote something auspicious, a Kshatriya’s be connected with power, and a Vaishyas with wealth but a Shudra’s express something contemptible. (Manu II.31)

4. The second part of a Brahmin’s name shall be a word implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) implying protection, of a Vaishya’s a term expressive of thriving and of a Shudra’s an expression denoting service. (Manu II. 32.)

5. A hundred year old Kshatriya must treat a ten year old Brahmin boy as his father. (Manu 11-135)

6. The Brahmin should never invite persons of other varnas for food. In case, the latter begs the Brahmin for food, the Brahmin may give them some left-over. Even these left-over must be served not by the Brahmin but by his servants outside the house. (Manu II2).

7. He who instructs Shudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Shudra shall become disqualified for being invited to a shradha. (Manu III. 156.)

8. A Shudra is unfit of receive education. The upper varnas should not impart education or give advice to a Shudra.It is not necessary that the Shudra should know the laws and codes and hence need not be taught. Violators will go to as amrita hell. (Manu IV-78 to 81)

9. “Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Shudras.” (Manu IV. 61)

10. He must never read the Vedas in the presence of the Shudras. (Manu IV. 99.)

11. Any country, where there are no Brahmins, of where they are not happy will get devastated and destroyed. (Manu VIII-20 to 22)

12. A Brahmana who is only a Brahman by decent i.e., one who has neither studied nor performed any other act required by the Vedas may, at the king’s pleasure, interpret the law to him i.e., act as the judge, but never a Shudra (however learned he may be). (Manu VIII. 20.)

13. The Kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Shudra settles the law, will sink low like a cow in the morass. (Manu VIII. 21.)

14. Any Brahmin, who enslaves or tries to enslave a Brahmin, is liable for a penalty of no less than 600 PANAS. A Brahmin can order a Shudra to serve him without any remuneration because the Shudra is created by Brahma to serve the Brahmins. Even if a Brahmin frees a Shudra from slavery the Shudra continue to be a slave as he is created for slavery. Nobody has the right to free him. (Manu VIII-50,56 and 59)

15. A Shudra who insults a twice born man with gross invectives shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin. (Manu VIII. 270.)

16. If he mentions the names and castes of the (twice born) with contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers long, shall be thrust red hot into his mouth. (Manu VIII. 271.)

17. If a Shudra arrogantly presumes to preach religion to Brahmins, the king shall have poured burning oil in his mouth and ears. Manu VIII. 272.)

18. A Shudra who has an intercourse with a woman of the higher caste guarded or unguarded shall be punished in the following manner; if she was unguarded, he loses the offending part; if she was guarded then he should be put to death and his property confiscated.” (Manu VIII. 374.)

19. A Brahman may compel a Shudra, whether bought or unbought, to do servile work for he is created by the creator to be the slave of a Brahmana. (Manu VIII. 413.)

20. No Shudra should have property of his own, He should have nothing of his own. The existence of a wealthy Shudra is bad for the Brahmins. A Brahman may take possession of the goods of a Shudra. (ManuVIII-417 & X129)

21. A Brahman may seize without hesitation, if he be in distress for his subsistence, the goods of his Shudra. The Shudra can have only one occupation. This is one of the inexorable laws of Manu. says Manu. (Manu VIII. 417)

22. A Shudra who wants to just fill his stomach may serve a Vaishya. If he wants a permanent means of living he can serve a Kshatriya. But if he wants to go to heaven or wants higher or superior birth in the next generation he must serve a Brahmin. (ManuIX334 & 335)

23. The most sacred duty of a Shudra is to serve the Brahmins, always, reciting the words “Brahman” with utmost devotion. Such a Shudra will get salvation. Otherwise he will die a worst death and will go to the worst hell. (Manu X-121)

24. But let a (Shudra) serve Brahmans, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next) for he who is called the servant of a Brahman thereby gains all his ends. (Manu X. 122.)

25. The service of Brahmans alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Shudra for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit. (Manu X. 123.)

26. They must allot to him out of their own family (property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support. (Manu X. 124.)

27. Brahmins to give Shudras food leftovers, old torn clothes, spoiled grain and old utensils (Manu X-125)

28. No superfluous collection of wealth must be made by a Shudra, even though he has power to make it, since a servile man, who has amassed riches, becomes proud, and, by his insolence or neglect, gives pain to Brahmins. (Manu X. 129.

29. A Brahmin shall never beg from a Shudra, property for (performing) a sacrifice i.e., for religious purposes. All marriages with the Shudra were prescribed. Marriage with a woman belonging to any of three other classes was forbidden. A Shudra was not to have a connection with a woman of the higher classes and an act of adultery committed by a Shudra with her was considered by Manu to be an offence involving capital punishment. (Manu XI. 24.)1, 2 ,3, 4In the matter o acquiring learning and knowledge Manu’s successors went much beyond him in the cruelty of their punishment of the Shudra for studying the Veda. For instance, Katyayana lays down that if a Shudra over heard the Veda or ventured to utter a word of the Veda, the king shall cut his tongue in twain and pour hot molten lead in his ear. Manu’s law book and its strict compliance by the Brahmans, it may be summarized that men and women are not born equal. There is no room for individual merit and no consideration of individual justice. If the individual has the privilege, it is not because it is due to his/her personally. The privilege goes with class, and if it is his/her good luck to enjoy it, he/she is destined to be born in the privileged class. On the other hand, if an individual is suffering in a class, it is because he belongs to that class. Thereby, logically speaking from Manusmriti’s point of view, the suffering of Shudras and women is because of their being part of their caste and sex respectively.Manu’s ‘social order’ breeds ‘social out-caste,’ which in turn dishes out ‘social injustice’ to the underprivileged. Narda’s ‘Smriti’ (law book), openly advocate slavery, but since Varnashram (a creation of caste system by the Manu) was critical and deviously interwoven into religion, to subjugate the Shudras through superstitions like opium to an addict, the Brahmans let the slaves die.”5From- Casteism: The Eighth Worst Wonder by Dr. S. L. Virdi, Pages-39-43)


1. Dr.Babasahib Saheb Ambedkar, Writings and Speeches, Vol. 5, Page 113 to 115
2. Kovena, Toward Emancipation, Page 57, 62
3. S.L.Shashtri, Manu Simiri ki Shav Preksha, concluded, Page 54 to 155
4. Author Coke Burnale, Hindu Polity (The Ordinances of Manu) concluded.
5. G.S.Thind, Our Indian Sub Continent Heritage, Page 145



Black Laws against the Women
Casteism and Degration of Women

1. Every woman must be loyal, faithful. obedient honorable to her husband even if he is blind, deaf, dumb, old, physically handicapped, debauchel or, gambler and neglects his wife and lives with his concubine(s). If the husband is unhappy, it would be the fault of his wife. If he cries, she should cry. Ifhe laughs she should laugh. She can only answer humbly to his question. She should not on her own put any question. She should eat only after her husband eats. If he is beating she should not react, but fall on his feet and beg him to pardon her, and kiss his hands and pacify him. If the husband dies she should burn herself to death on his funeral pyre and go along with him to the other world and serve him there in this manner. (Padma Purana)

2. Women are fickle minded. Never believe them. Friendship with
a women is just like friendship with a wolf. (Rig-Veda 8-33-7)

3. A virtuous woman is one who dies on the funeral pyre of her dead husband and avails the privilege of serving her husband in the other world. (Atharva Veda 18-3-1)

4. Woman is the source of sorrow. At birth she makes her mother weep. At the time of the puberty she makes her parents weep. At the time of the marriage she makes all her family members and relatives weep. In youth she commits lot of blunders and brings bad name to the entire family, relatives and Varna. She tortures the hearts of her parents, husband and other family members. She is called ‘DARIKA’ because she is source of sorrow to all. (Aithareya Brahmana)

5. Women are liers, corrupt, greedy, and unvirtuous. (Manu II 1)

6. Even for a woman, the performance of the sanskaras are necessary and they should be performed. But they should be performed without uttering the Veda Mantras.” (Manu II. 60)0

7. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); the wise are never unguarded in the company of males. (Manu II. 213)

8. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (tomake) him a slave of desire and anger.” (Manu II.214)

9. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister or daughter, for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.” (Manu II. 215)

10. A Brahmin male by virtue of his birth becomes the first husband of all women in the universe. (Manu III. 14)

11. Women not care for beauty, nor is their attention fied on age; (thinking); (it is though that) he is a man, they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly. (Manu IV. 14)

12. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.” (Manu IV. 147)

13. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent. (Manu IV. 148)

14. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband or son; by leaving them. She would make them both (her own and her husband’s) family incompatible. (Manu IV. 149)

15. A Brahman must never eat food given at a sacrifice performed by a woman. (Manu IV. 205)

16. Sacrifices performed by women are inauspicious and not acceptable to god. They should therefore be avoided. (Manu IV. 206)

17. A girl must be under the care of her father . . . in youth under the care of the husband and in old age under the care of her sons. But she should never be free and independent. (Manu V. 148)

18. She must always be cheerful, clever in management of her household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils and economical in expenditure. (Manu V. 150)

19. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long as he lives and when he is dead, must not insult his memory. (Manu V. 151)

20. The husband who wedded her with sacred mantras is always a source of happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next. (Manu V1. 53)

21. Though destitute or virtuous, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities, yet a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife. (Manu V. 154)

22. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women, apart from their husbands. If a wife obeys her husband, she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven. (Manu V. 155)

23. At her pleasure let her (i.e. widow) enunciate her body, by living voluntarily on pure flowers, roots and fruits, but let her not when her lord is deceased, even pronounce the name of another man. (Manu V. 157)

24. But a widow, who from a wish to bear children, slights her deceased husband by marrying again,brings disgrace on herself here below, and shall be excluded from the seat of her lord (in heaven). (Manu V. 161) 25. Responsibly the father who gives not (his daughter) in marriage at the proper time. (Manu IX. 4)

26. A woman must always maintain her virtue and surrender her body to her husband only, ever if she is married off to an ugly person or even a leper. (Manu IX. 14)

27. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness,they become disloyal towards their husbands, however, carefully they may be guarded in this (world). (Manu IX. 15)

28. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of Creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them. (Manu IX. 16)

29. When creating them, Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of heart) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct. (Manu IX. 17)

30. Killing of a woman, a Shudra or an atheist is not sinful. Woman is an embodiment of the worst desires, hatred, deceit, jealousy and bad character. Women should never be given freedom. (Manu IX. 17 and V. 47, 147)

31. Women have no right to study the Vedas. That is why their Sanskars are performed without Veda Mantras. women have no knowledge of religion because they have no right to know the Vedas. The uttering of Veda Mantras, they are as unclean as untruth is.” (Manu IX. 18)

32. All women are born of sinful wombs. (Bhagavad-Gita IX 32)

33. The husband is declared to be one with the wife, which means there could be no separation once a woman is married. (Manu IX. 45)

34. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband. (Manu IX. 46)

35. To a distinguished, handsome suitor of equal caste should she have not attained (the proper age) (i.e. although she may not have reached puberty). (Manu IX. 88)

36. A wife, a son and a slave, they three are declared to have no property: the wealth which they earn is (acquired)for him to whom they belong. (Manu IX. 416)

37. None of the acts of women can be taken as good and reasonable. (Manu X.4)

38. Day and night women must be kept in dependence by males (of their families), and, if they attach themselves tosexual enjoyments, they must be kept under one’s control. (Manu XI2)

39. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, and her sons protect (her) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence.” (Manu XI. 3)

40. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling (they may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on to families.” (Manu XI. 5)

41. Considering that the highest duty of all castes even weak husbands (must) scribe to guard their wives. (Manu XI. 6)

42. A woman shall not perform the daily sacrifices prescribed by the Vedas. Then according to IX.37 if she does it, she will go to hell. (Manu XI. 36)1, 2, 3, 4From- Casteism: The Eighth Worst Wonder by Dr. S. L. Virdi, Pages-39-43)

1. G.S.Thind, Our Indian Sub Continent Heritage, Page 146 to 151)2. Author Coke Burnale, Hindu Polity The Ordinances of Manu) Concluded 3. Kovena, Toward Emancipation. Page 57, 62, 72, 73
4. S.L.Shashtri, Manu Simiri ki Shav Preeksha concluded page 54 to 155.




Sahib Kanshi Ram Ji addressing huge rally

Kanshi Ram was a unique personality. He was the only leader in todays’s politics who practices what he preaches. He was one who has set an example to his followers. He sacrifices his whole life for the mission of Baba Saheb Ambedkar and for the betterment of 85% majority Indians, i.e., Bahujans which is an example to the country.

Mr. Kanshi Ram was born in a Ramdasia ( Chamar ) low scheduled caste, dalit family on 15 March 1934 in village Khawaspur of Ropar district , Punjab, India. He took his primary education from his native village and acquired B.Sc. from a college in Ropar and qualified the competitive examination conducted by Defence Science and Research Development Organisation and joined the government service in Pune as a “Scientist” at the explosive Research factory.

DRDO cancelled two holidays: Dr. Ambedkar and Buddha Jayanti and on it’s place declared Tilak and Diwali. Mr. Dina Bhana a Rajastani Scheduled Caste leader protested against this decision and became the wrath of the management and was suspended from the organisation. This discrimination puzzled Kanshi Ram. From that moment he began to understand the caste evils and also the revolutionary thoughts and philosophy of Baba Saheb Ambedkar. Mr. Kanshi Ram took the initiative and extended absolute support to Mr. Dina Bhana and fought his case in the court. The result was that Mr. Dina Bhana’s suspension was revoked and the cancelled Buddha Jayanti and Dr. Ambedkar Jayanti’s holidays were restored. This is the instance which turned Mr. Kanshi Ram towards the evils of caste system. He read Dr. Ambedkar’s book “Annihilation of Caste” which gave him a deep insight into the evil of inequalities of the caste system.

This book really shock Mr. Kanshi Ram. He resigned from his government job and started working for the Republican Party of India (RPI) the political party founded by Dr. Ambedkar but when saw the continuous and never ending in fighting amongst the various leaders of the RPI he left it. On 14th October, 1971 he took three pledges, that were:

1. He would never marry and have no family;
2. He would have no property and finance of his own;
3. He would never have any emotional attachment with any one including his parents.

He is adhering to these pledges even to this day. This is a memorable incident which makes every one even today to regard Mr. Kanshi Ram in high esteam and respect. He coined the first “concept” of his political life which said, “The people whose non political roots are not strong , cannot succeed politically. Keeping that in mind , instead of jumping into political fray straight away, he started organising the government employees hailing from the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes who had got employment availing the “Reservation” for them in government services. After doing the basic ground work for some years he launched an organisation called the BAMCEF (Backword and Minorities Communities Employees Federation) on 6th December, 1978.

BAMCEF is for the porposeful social cause. This is movement of the educated employees, but not for the educated employees. The basic object of this organisation is to pay back to the oppressed and exploited society and to discharge their social obligation towards their unfortunate brethren amongst whom they born.

On 6th December, 1981 Kanshi Ram started an other organisation named DS4 (Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti) a cycle marched from Kanyakumari in the South, Kohima in north west, Porbunder in west and Puri in the east to Delhi. Over 3 lakh people participated in these marches for Samata Aur Sanman.

On 14th April, 1984 on the birthday of Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Mr. Kanshi Ram after strengthening his non-political roots floated political party, BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) the party, majority of the people of India. He openly declared that our ultimate aim is to Jati Torro, Samaj Jorro and to rule India. For fullfilling his mission Mr. Kanshi Ram hold conferences for the formation of Bahujan Saman in the year of 1989 throughout the country to make them understand that the Bahujan Samaj is safe only with the Bahujan Samaj Party:

1st Conference: Muslim are safe with BSP at Muradabad on 10/9/89.
2nd Conference: Scheduled castes are safe with BSP at Delhi on 13/9/89.
3rd Conference: OBCs are safe with BSP at Kanpur on 1/10/89.
4th Conference: Sikh are safe with BSP at Ludhiana on 8/10/89.
5th Conference: S.C& S T are safe with BSP at Bilaspur on 15/10/89.
6th Conference: Christians are safe with BSP at Bangalore.

For economic salvation he launched the Kisan Mazdoor Andolan and said, “The basic idea is that those who are tilling the land and producing foodgrains are starving and those who own the land are becoming wealthy though they do nothing. We are against it. We do not want higher wages. You see whatever land is under cultivation, double of that is lying vacant, which can be cultivated by the government. So we feel that people should only work in their own farms or government farms. If people work in other’s farms, it will lead to oppression and exploitation.”

“The political power is the master key with which you can open any lock whether it is social, economic, educational or cultural lock. Very shortly we will be holding this master key in our hands.”

For achieving his political goal he first concentrated on the state of Utter Pradesh, the most popular and politically active in India which returns 85 members of Parliament out of the total 545. After fighting many generals and by-elections BSP formed the first time Dalit government in U.P. in India and implemented the mandal commission report and numerous development schemes. This helped BSP in further expanding its voter base amongst dalits, backword castes and merginally among the minorities communities extra.

BSP scored a remarkable victory amidst state terrorism in Punjab and now regarded as a very powerful movement, which has received people’s mass support in U.P, M.P, J&K, Rajasthan, Delhi and Maharashtra states. Even the election commission has recognised BSP as National Party after congress and BJP.

Kanshi Ram was known as a political strategist par excellence. Even his political opponent admit this fact. He had a knack for exploiting every situation to his benefit. He had openly declared that his singular aim is to make the Bahujan Samaj the rulers of this country.





Messiah of Humanity
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Indian Constitution

Dr. Ambedkar was one of the illustrious sons of the India who struggled throughout his life to restructure the Indian Society on humanitarian and egalitarian principles. He was not only a great national leader but also a distinguish scholar of international repute. He not only led various social movements for the upliftment of the depressed sections of the Indian Society but also contributed to the understanding of the Socio-Economic and Political problems of India through his scholarly works on caste, religion, culture, constitutional law and economic development. As a matter of fact he was an economist and his various scholarly works and speeches indicates his deep understanding of the problems faced by Indian Society.

From his very childhood, Dr. Ambedkar was forced to experience the evils of Untouchability. He being an untouchable by birth was forced to sit aside in classroom in the school. He was not allowed to touch his classmates. He could not mix and play with their fellows.

Owing to his academic brilliance, he won many government and private scholarships which helped him in attaining higher qualification from many Indian and foreign universities. He obtained a Ph.D. from Columbia in New York, D. Sc. from the London.

Having returned from London Dr. Ambedkar was given a high post in Baroda. When he reached Baroda no one came to welcome him. Worse still, even the servants in the office would not hand over the files to him. No one in the office would give him water to drink. He could not get a house to live in. On account of his low caste, he was refused a place on rent. He tried his best to get a room, but could find no shelter. He had to resign the post and returned to Bombay.

Dr. Ambedkar founded a bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha in 1924 for the upliftment of Dalits. He started Marathi fortnightly the “Mook Nayak” which means the leader of the dumb. Through this paper he awakened the dalits to fight for their rights. He arose a feeling of self respect and self confidence among the dalits and prepared for equal civil rights to the dalits.

Dr. Ambedkar launched marches to enter the Kala Ram Mandir in Nasik and drank water from the public tank at Mahad in Maharashtra. By this acts of the agitation, Dr. Ambedkar wanted to remove the mental dormancy of his people on an all India level. Dr. Ambedkar asked dalits to resist boldly all the acts of social tyranny” Goats! Lions are not sacrificed. Strengthen the organisation of the depressed classes all over the country as it is the only way for salvation.”

In 1946, Dr. Ambedkar entered into Constituent Assembly. He was taken into the Drafting Committee and there after he was elected as the Chairman of the drafting Committee. He was also taken as the Minister for law.
Dr. Ambedkar knew the difficulties for his illiterate, gullible, resource-less and helpless people to carry on the massive struggles. The “orphans of the world” he resorted to the constitutional method to solve all the social, political and economic problems.
In the constitution, Dr. Ambedkar provided an inspiring preamble ensuring justice, social, economic and political, liberty, equality and fraternity. He provided comprehensive chapters of fundamental rights and opportunities without discrimination and for securing all freedom and for reducing economic inequalities. He provided in the constitution also safe guards for the protection of rights and interests of the dalits and minorities and also equal rights to the women.

Dr. Ambedkar advocated his economic doctrine of “State socialism” in the draft constitution which he prepared and submitted to the constituent Assembly. He proposed state ownership of agriculture with a collectivised method of cultivation and a modified form of state socialism in the field of industry. Dr. Ambedkar also proposed that the above scheme of state socialism should not be left to the will of the legislature and it should be established by the law of constitution so that it will be beyond the reach of the parliamentary majority to suspend, amend or abrogate it. This guarantees state socialism while retaining parliamentary democracy. “It is only by this that one can achieve the triple objectives namely to establish socialism, retain parliamentary democracy and to avoid dictatorship”.

Dr. Ambedkar also believed that this plan of state socialism was essential for increasing productivity without closing every avenue to private sector and also distributing wealth equitably. “The main purpose behind the clause is to put an obligation on the state to plan the economic life of people on lines which would lead to highest point of productivity without closing every avenue to the private enterprise and also provide for the equitable distribution of wealth.” In other words his model of Economic Development was based on mixed economic system where state has to play active role while opening avenues for private sector.
Further Dr. Ambedkar also argued that if democracy was to live up to its principle of one man one value, it was essential to define both the economic structure as well as the political structure of the society by the law of constitution.

Thus it follows from the above analysis of Dr. Ambedkar’s strategy of development that the state has to play very active and crucial role in accelerating the growth with justice through democratic methods. The foundation of democracy would be feeble and shaky if the contradictions between political democracy, enshrined in the constitution, and social and economic inequalities, existing in our society, are not resolved. And the shape and form of economic structure should be defined and prescribed by the law of the constitution without leaving it to the will of the legislature along with that of the structure of the political democracy so that social and economic democracy consistent with political democracy is established.

But due to the strong opposition of the constitution assembly, Dr. Ambedkar could not incorporate his scheme of state socialism under fundamental rights as a part of the constitution. Having failed to achieve his target by adopting such constitutional provisions for a free India, he resorted to the different mode to annihilate or at least weaken the caste system. He took a lengthy process of counter reservation.

The Constitution of India, the world’s lengthiest written constitution was passed by the constituent assembly on November 26, 1949. It has been in effect since January 26, 1950, which is celebrated as Republic Day in India. Dr. Ambedkar said in the constituent assembly, “No matter how good a constitution may be, if the means to implement it are no good, then the constitution proves no better. If we want to establish democracy, then we must implement our social and economic ideal by means of peaceful and constitutional measures. Democracy’s life is based on liberty, equality, and fraternity. There is a total lack of equality in India. We have equality in politics, but inequality reigns in the spheres of society and economics.

Dr. Ambedkar’s knowledge in the constitutional law was extensive varied, profound and encyclopedic. The role played by Dr. Ambedkar in the making of the Constitution received the appreciation of all the members of the constituent Assembly.
On 26th November, the Constituent assembly approved the draft Constitution Bill. Then the first President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad praised the services rendered by Dr. Ambedkar in the making of the constitution and said:
“I have carefully watched the day to day activities from the Presidential seat. Therefore, I appreciate more than others with how much dedication and vitality this task has been carried out by the Drafting Committee and by its chairman Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar in particular. We never did a better thing than having Dr. Ambedkar on the Drafting Committee and selecting him as its chairman.”

Columbia University as its Special convocation on 5th June 1952 conferred the LL.D. degree (Honors Cause) on Dr. Ambedkar in recognition of his drafting the constitution of India. The citation read: “The degree is being conferred in recognition of the work done by him in connection with the drafting of India’s constitution”. The University hailed him as “one of India’s leading citizen, a great social reformer and valiant upholder of human rights.” The same university has already conferred the PhD degree on Ambedkar thirty five years before.

Gautama Buddha fought to eradicate poverty, the Dukkha. He advocated the principle of no private property. He applied this principle of no private property within the limited campus of Sanghas. He advocated the doctrine of “Majjim Patipada” or the middle course. Men should neither accumulate nor enjoy too much or too little of wealth or privileges. That became the cause of “Dukkha” for the rest of the society.

For the last and the latest social revolution Dr. Ambedkar himself adopted and advised his followers to adopt, Buddhism, the spirit of equality and justice. He took refuge in Lord Buddha on 14th October, 1956 at Nagpur along with 5 Lakh of his followers. Baba Saheb, Ambedkar was planning to organise a mass conversion in very near future, but they were found dead on the night of 6th December 1956.



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