REVOLT OF SAHIB SHRI GURU RAVI DASS JI
SATGURU RAVIDASS JI
When Guru Ravi Dass born in low caste revolted against casteism: the eighth worst wonder. Wayed a relentness war against the brahminism in the medieval age. At that time untouchability was at its full swim. The tyranny agianst the untouchables was unbearable. They were debarred from acquiring education and knowledge, proper ty and wearing cloths. Their shadow would pollute the high caste to be considered. On denial, one is punished according to Manu’s law:
“If he (the shudra) recites (Vedic texts), his tongue shall be cut out. If he is insolent enough to give lessons regarding their duty to the brahmins, the king shall order hot oil to be poured into his mouth and ears. With whatever limb a man of low caste offends against a brahmin, that very limb of him shall be cut off; such shall be the atonement of his crime.
Guru Ravi Dass not only vehemently condemned the caste system but also criticised the originators, and declared it a man made phenomenon. He declared that not by birth does one becomes an untouchable and brahmin. All human beings born equal. He preached equality, liberty, fraternity and justice and stood for the human rights of the persecuted people.
Guru Ravi Dass countered the brahminical falsehood with his Satnam means truth. He declared that in past truth was truth, today the truth is also the truth and tomarrow the truth will be also the truth. He advised the people that one can enjoy a comfortable life by adopting a Satnam Marg i.e., controlling his mind and nerves also leaving vekars (ill-wills).
Guru Ravidass not only condemend the brahmans’ special ritghs but struggled for the equal rights for all human beings. He started blow couch-shell, wearing sacred thread, tied dhoti, shopping in the market and launched a march to Ganges river for drinking pure water.
Brahmins lodged a complaint before the king that human rights are denied to the untouchables. According to their religious Dharma shashtras Ganges is reserved only for the brahmins. The king ordered his soldier to arrest the Ravi Dass and produced him before me. He was arrested and produced in the court. Brahmins repeated the same. In defence Guru Ravi Dass argued that the so called upper caste brahmin are the invaders and they themselves are the natives. After entering in India they subjugated the civilized Indians destroyed our civilisation, Satjug-Begumpura-the caste and class less society and imposed their barbarian way of life on us. In this way the brahmins with their political domination not controlled only our basic necessities and civil rights but intellect also. Then all the natural resources belongs to us. They not bring these with them. If they are feeling polluted here, then they should must be returned to their native place or country. After listening the arguments of the Guru Ravidass the king got fully satisfied and released the Guru Ravi Dass from prison.
First Woman Teacher of India Krantijot Savitri Bai Phoolay
In the middle of 19th century one of the most respected personality, father of the Indian Social Revolution Jyoti Rao Phoolay and his life Partner Krantijot Savitri Bai Phoolay revolted against Brahminical system and hegemony of the Brahmins in all spheres of life. An incident in 1848 made young Phule aware of the inequities of the caste system and the predominant position of the Brahmins in the social set-up. As a bridegroom was being taken in a procession, Jyotiba was accompanying him along with the relatives of this friend. Upon knowing that Jyotiba belonging to “Mali” caste which was considered to be inferior. The relatives of the bridegroom insulted him for taking part in that auspicious occasion. This incident triggered young Jotirao’s impressionable mind to defy the caste system and to serve the Shudras and women who were deprived of their rights as human beings under the caste system throughout his life.
Jotirao Phoolay and Krantijot Phoolay boldly attacked the stronghold of the Brahmins, who prevented others from having access to all the avenues of knowledge. They denounced them as cheats and hypocrites. They organised the untouchables and women and started the anti-Brahmin movement. They opened schools for the untouchables and women and gave the message of equality then high caste Hindus ostracized him and demolished his house. Phule launched a jihad against the priesthood and brahminical supremacy with a deep sense of commitment. They declared that social slavery is worst than political slavery. Phoolay wrote a book Gulamgiri for the salvation of Shudras and Ati Shudras in which he gave a clarion call to the Shudras and Ati Shudras for waging a decisive war against social system of the Hindus. They formed a Satya Sodhak Samaj for this purpose.
Black Laws of the Manu Smriti Against
Dalits and Women
Manu divides Hindus into four varnas i.e. casteism. He not only divide Hindus into four varnas, he also grades them. Besides prescribing rank and occupation Manu grants privilege to swarnas and imposes penalties on the shudras.The status of the Shudras in the Hindu society as prescribed by Manu the Law-giver and the Architect of Hindu society. There are so many Codes of the Manu Smriti against the Shudras and Women which are below:
1. For the welfare of humanity the supreme creator Brahma, gave birth to the Brahmins from his mouth, the Kshatriyas from his shoulders, the Vaishyas from his thighs and Shudras from his feet. (Manu’s code I-31,)
2. God said the duty of a Shudra is to serve the upper varnas faithfully with devotion and without grumbling. (Manu 1-91) Manu is not satisfied with this. He wants this servile status of the Shudras to be expressed in the names and surnames of persons belonging to that community. Manu says:
3. Let the first part of a Brahman’s name denote something auspicious, a Kshatriya’s be connected with power, and a Vaishyas with wealth but a Shudra’s express something contemptible. (Manu II.31)
4. The second part of a Brahmin’s name shall be a word implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) implying protection, of a Vaishya’s a term expressive of thriving and of a Shudra’s an expression denoting service. (Manu II. 32.)
5. A hundred year old Kshatriya must treat a ten year old Brahmin boy as his father. (Manu 11-135)
6. The Brahmin should never invite persons of other varnas for food. In case, the latter begs the Brahmin for food, the Brahmin may give them some left-over. Even these left-over must be served not by the Brahmin but by his servants outside the house. (Manu II2).
7. He who instructs Shudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Shudra shall become disqualified for being invited to a shradha. (Manu III. 156.)
8. A Shudra is unfit of receive education. The upper varnas should not impart education or give advice to a Shudra.It is not necessary that the Shudra should know the laws and codes and hence need not be taught. Violators will go to as amrita hell. (Manu IV-78 to 81)
9. “Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Shudras.” (Manu IV. 61)
10. He must never read the Vedas in the presence of the Shudras. (Manu IV. 99.)
11. Any country, where there are no Brahmins, of where they are not happy will get devastated and destroyed. (Manu VIII-20 to 22)
12. A Brahmana who is only a Brahman by decent i.e., one who has neither studied nor performed any other act required by the Vedas may, at the king’s pleasure, interpret the law to him i.e., act as the judge, but never a Shudra (however learned he may be). (Manu VIII. 20.)
13. The Kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Shudra settles the law, will sink low like a cow in the morass. (Manu VIII. 21.)
14. Any Brahmin, who enslaves or tries to enslave a Brahmin, is liable for a penalty of no less than 600 PANAS. A Brahmin can order a Shudra to serve him without any remuneration because the Shudra is created by Brahma to serve the Brahmins. Even if a Brahmin frees a Shudra from slavery the Shudra continue to be a slave as he is created for slavery. Nobody has the right to free him. (Manu VIII-50,56 and 59)
15. A Shudra who insults a twice born man with gross invectives shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin. (Manu VIII. 270.)
16. If he mentions the names and castes of the (twice born) with contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers long, shall be thrust red hot into his mouth. (Manu VIII. 271.)
17. If a Shudra arrogantly presumes to preach religion to Brahmins, the king shall have poured burning oil in his mouth and ears. Manu VIII. 272.)
18. A Shudra who has an intercourse with a woman of the higher caste guarded or unguarded shall be punished in the following manner; if she was unguarded, he loses the offending part; if she was guarded then he should be put to death and his property confiscated.” (Manu VIII. 374.)
19. A Brahman may compel a Shudra, whether bought or unbought, to do servile work for he is created by the creator to be the slave of a Brahmana. (Manu VIII. 413.)
20. No Shudra should have property of his own, He should have nothing of his own. The existence of a wealthy Shudra is bad for the Brahmins. A Brahman may take possession of the goods of a Shudra. (ManuVIII-417 & X129)
21. A Brahman may seize without hesitation, if he be in distress for his subsistence, the goods of his Shudra. The Shudra can have only one occupation. This is one of the inexorable laws of Manu. says Manu. (Manu VIII. 417)
22. A Shudra who wants to just fill his stomach may serve a Vaishya. If he wants a permanent means of living he can serve a Kshatriya. But if he wants to go to heaven or wants higher or superior birth in the next generation he must serve a Brahmin. (ManuIX334 & 335)
23. The most sacred duty of a Shudra is to serve the Brahmins, always, reciting the words “Brahman” with utmost devotion. Such a Shudra will get salvation. Otherwise he will die a worst death and will go to the worst hell. (Manu X-121)
24. But let a (Shudra) serve Brahmans, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next) for he who is called the servant of a Brahman thereby gains all his ends. (Manu X. 122.)
25. The service of Brahmans alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Shudra for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit. (Manu X. 123.)
26. They must allot to him out of their own family (property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support. (Manu X. 124.)
27. Brahmins to give Shudras food leftovers, old torn clothes, spoiled grain and old utensils (Manu X-125)
28. No superfluous collection of wealth must be made by a Shudra, even though he has power to make it, since a servile man, who has amassed riches, becomes proud, and, by his insolence or neglect, gives pain to Brahmins. (Manu X. 129.
29. A Brahmin shall never beg from a Shudra, property for (performing) a sacrifice i.e., for religious purposes. All marriages with the Shudra were prescribed. Marriage with a woman belonging to any of three other classes was forbidden. A Shudra was not to have a connection with a woman of the higher classes and an act of adultery committed by a Shudra with her was considered by Manu to be an offence involving capital punishment. (Manu XI. 24.)1, 2 ,3, 4In the matter o acquiring learning and knowledge Manu’s successors went much beyond him in the cruelty of their punishment of the Shudra for studying the Veda. For instance, Katyayana lays down that if a Shudra over heard the Veda or ventured to utter a word of the Veda, the king shall cut his tongue in twain and pour hot molten lead in his ear. Manu’s law book and its strict compliance by the Brahmans, it may be summarized that men and women are not born equal. There is no room for individual merit and no consideration of individual justice. If the individual has the privilege, it is not because it is due to his/her personally. The privilege goes with class, and if it is his/her good luck to enjoy it, he/she is destined to be born in the privileged class. On the other hand, if an individual is suffering in a class, it is because he belongs to that class. Thereby, logically speaking from Manusmriti’s point of view, the suffering of Shudras and women is because of their being part of their caste and sex respectively.Manu’s ‘social order’ breeds ‘social out-caste,’ which in turn dishes out ‘social injustice’ to the underprivileged. Narda’s ‘Smriti’ (law book), openly advocate slavery, but since Varnashram (a creation of caste system by the Manu) was critical and deviously interwoven into religion, to subjugate the Shudras through superstitions like opium to an addict, the Brahmans let the slaves die.”5From- Casteism: The Eighth Worst Wonder by Dr. S. L. Virdi, Pages-39-43)
1. Dr.Babasahib Saheb Ambedkar, Writings and Speeches, Vol. 5, Page 113 to 115
2. Kovena, Toward Emancipation, Page 57, 62
3. S.L.Shashtri, Manu Simiri ki Shav Preksha, concluded, Page 54 to 155
4. Author Coke Burnale, Hindu Polity (The Ordinances of Manu) concluded.
5. G.S.Thind, Our Indian Sub Continent Heritage, Page 145
Black Laws against the Women
Casteism and Degration of Women
1. Every woman must be loyal, faithful. obedient honorable to her husband even if he is blind, deaf, dumb, old, physically handicapped, debauchel or, gambler and neglects his wife and lives with his concubine(s). If the husband is unhappy, it would be the fault of his wife. If he cries, she should cry. Ifhe laughs she should laugh. She can only answer humbly to his question. She should not on her own put any question. She should eat only after her husband eats. If he is beating she should not react, but fall on his feet and beg him to pardon her, and kiss his hands and pacify him. If the husband dies she should burn herself to death on his funeral pyre and go along with him to the other world and serve him there in this manner. (Padma Purana)
2. Women are fickle minded. Never believe them. Friendship with
a women is just like friendship with a wolf. (Rig-Veda 8-33-7)
3. A virtuous woman is one who dies on the funeral pyre of her dead husband and avails the privilege of serving her husband in the other world. (Atharva Veda 18-3-1)
4. Woman is the source of sorrow. At birth she makes her mother weep. At the time of the puberty she makes her parents weep. At the time of the marriage she makes all her family members and relatives weep. In youth she commits lot of blunders and brings bad name to the entire family, relatives and Varna. She tortures the hearts of her parents, husband and other family members. She is called ‘DARIKA’ because she is source of sorrow to all. (Aithareya Brahmana)
5. Women are liers, corrupt, greedy, and unvirtuous. (Manu II 1)
6. Even for a woman, the performance of the sanskaras are necessary and they should be performed. But they should be performed without uttering the Veda Mantras.” (Manu II. 60)0
7. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); the wise are never unguarded in the company of males. (Manu II. 213)
8. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (tomake) him a slave of desire and anger.” (Manu II.214)
9. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister or daughter, for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.” (Manu II. 215)
10. A Brahmin male by virtue of his birth becomes the first husband of all women in the universe. (Manu III. 14)
11. Women not care for beauty, nor is their attention fied on age; (thinking); (it is though that) he is a man, they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly. (Manu IV. 14)
12. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.” (Manu IV. 147)
13. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent. (Manu IV. 148)
14. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband or son; by leaving them. She would make them both (her own and her husband’s) family incompatible. (Manu IV. 149)
15. A Brahman must never eat food given at a sacrifice performed by a woman. (Manu IV. 205)
16. Sacrifices performed by women are inauspicious and not acceptable to god. They should therefore be avoided. (Manu IV. 206)
17. A girl must be under the care of her father . . . in youth under the care of the husband and in old age under the care of her sons. But she should never be free and independent. (Manu V. 148)
18. She must always be cheerful, clever in management of her household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils and economical in expenditure. (Manu V. 150)
19. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long as he lives and when he is dead, must not insult his memory. (Manu V. 151)
20. The husband who wedded her with sacred mantras is always a source of happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next. (Manu V1. 53)
21. Though destitute or virtuous, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities, yet a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife. (Manu V. 154)
22. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women, apart from their husbands. If a wife obeys her husband, she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven. (Manu V. 155)
23. At her pleasure let her (i.e. widow) enunciate her body, by living voluntarily on pure flowers, roots and fruits, but let her not when her lord is deceased, even pronounce the name of another man. (Manu V. 157)
24. But a widow, who from a wish to bear children, slights her deceased husband by marrying again,brings disgrace on herself here below, and shall be excluded from the seat of her lord (in heaven). (Manu V. 161) 25. Responsibly the father who gives not (his daughter) in marriage at the proper time. (Manu IX. 4)
26. A woman must always maintain her virtue and surrender her body to her husband only, ever if she is married off to an ugly person or even a leper. (Manu IX. 14)
27. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness,they become disloyal towards their husbands, however, carefully they may be guarded in this (world). (Manu IX. 15)
28. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of Creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them. (Manu IX. 16)
29. When creating them, Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of heart) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct. (Manu IX. 17)
30. Killing of a woman, a Shudra or an atheist is not sinful. Woman is an embodiment of the worst desires, hatred, deceit, jealousy and bad character. Women should never be given freedom. (Manu IX. 17 and V. 47, 147)
31. Women have no right to study the Vedas. That is why their Sanskars are performed without Veda Mantras. women have no knowledge of religion because they have no right to know the Vedas. The uttering of Veda Mantras, they are as unclean as untruth is.” (Manu IX. 18)
32. All women are born of sinful wombs. (Bhagavad-Gita IX 32)
33. The husband is declared to be one with the wife, which means there could be no separation once a woman is married. (Manu IX. 45)
34. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband. (Manu IX. 46)
35. To a distinguished, handsome suitor of equal caste should she have not attained (the proper age) (i.e. although she may not have reached puberty). (Manu IX. 88)
36. A wife, a son and a slave, they three are declared to have no property: the wealth which they earn is (acquired)for him to whom they belong. (Manu IX. 416)
37. None of the acts of women can be taken as good and reasonable. (Manu X.4)
38. Day and night women must be kept in dependence by males (of their families), and, if they attach themselves tosexual enjoyments, they must be kept under one’s control. (Manu XI2)
39. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, and her sons protect (her) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence.” (Manu XI. 3)
40. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling (they may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on to families.” (Manu XI. 5)
41. Considering that the highest duty of all castes even weak husbands (must) scribe to guard their wives. (Manu XI. 6)
42. A woman shall not perform the daily sacrifices prescribed by the Vedas. Then according to IX.37 if she does it, she will go to hell. (Manu XI. 36)1, 2, 3, 4From- Casteism: The Eighth Worst Wonder by Dr. S. L. Virdi, Pages-39-43)
1. G.S.Thind, Our Indian Sub Continent Heritage, Page 146 to 151)2. Author Coke Burnale, Hindu Polity The Ordinances of Manu) Concluded 3. Kovena, Toward Emancipation. Page 57, 62, 72, 73
4. S.L.Shashtri, Manu Simiri ki Shav Preeksha concluded page 54 to 155.
Sahib Kanshi Ram Ji addressing huge rally
Kanshi Ram was a unique personality. He was the only leader in todays’s politics who practices what he preaches. He was one who has set an example to his followers. He sacrifices his whole life for the mission of Baba Saheb Ambedkar and for the betterment of 85% majority Indians, i.e., Bahujans which is an example to the country.
Mr. Kanshi Ram was born in a Ramdasia ( Chamar ) low scheduled caste, dalit family on 15 March 1934 in village Khawaspur of Ropar district , Punjab, India. He took his primary education from his native village and acquired B.Sc. from a college in Ropar and qualified the competitive examination conducted by Defence Science and Research Development Organisation and joined the government service in Pune as a “Scientist” at the explosive Research factory.
DRDO cancelled two holidays: Dr. Ambedkar and Buddha Jayanti and on it’s place declared Tilak and Diwali. Mr. Dina Bhana a Rajastani Scheduled Caste leader protested against this decision and became the wrath of the management and was suspended from the organisation. This discrimination puzzled Kanshi Ram. From that moment he began to understand the caste evils and also the revolutionary thoughts and philosophy of Baba Saheb Ambedkar. Mr. Kanshi Ram took the initiative and extended absolute support to Mr. Dina Bhana and fought his case in the court. The result was that Mr. Dina Bhana’s suspension was revoked and the cancelled Buddha Jayanti and Dr. Ambedkar Jayanti’s holidays were restored. This is the instance which turned Mr. Kanshi Ram towards the evils of caste system. He read Dr. Ambedkar’s book “Annihilation of Caste” which gave him a deep insight into the evil of inequalities of the caste system.
This book really shock Mr. Kanshi Ram. He resigned from his government job and started working for the Republican Party of India (RPI) the political party founded by Dr. Ambedkar but when saw the continuous and never ending in fighting amongst the various leaders of the RPI he left it. On 14th October, 1971 he took three pledges, that were:
1. He would never marry and have no family;
2. He would have no property and finance of his own;
3. He would never have any emotional attachment with any one including his parents.
He is adhering to these pledges even to this day. This is a memorable incident which makes every one even today to regard Mr. Kanshi Ram in high esteam and respect. He coined the first “concept” of his political life which said, “The people whose non political roots are not strong , cannot succeed politically. Keeping that in mind , instead of jumping into political fray straight away, he started organising the government employees hailing from the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes who had got employment availing the “Reservation” for them in government services. After doing the basic ground work for some years he launched an organisation called the BAMCEF (Backword and Minorities Communities Employees Federation) on 6th December, 1978.
BAMCEF is for the porposeful social cause. This is movement of the educated employees, but not for the educated employees. The basic object of this organisation is to pay back to the oppressed and exploited society and to discharge their social obligation towards their unfortunate brethren amongst whom they born.
On 6th December, 1981 Kanshi Ram started an other organisation named DS4 (Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti) a cycle marched from Kanyakumari in the South, Kohima in north west, Porbunder in west and Puri in the east to Delhi. Over 3 lakh people participated in these marches for Samata Aur Sanman.
On 14th April, 1984 on the birthday of Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Mr. Kanshi Ram after strengthening his non-political roots floated political party, BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) the party, majority of the people of India. He openly declared that our ultimate aim is to Jati Torro, Samaj Jorro and to rule India. For fullfilling his mission Mr. Kanshi Ram hold conferences for the formation of Bahujan Saman in the year of 1989 throughout the country to make them understand that the Bahujan Samaj is safe only with the Bahujan Samaj Party:
1st Conference: Muslim are safe with BSP at Muradabad on 10/9/89.
2nd Conference: Scheduled castes are safe with BSP at Delhi on 13/9/89.
3rd Conference: OBCs are safe with BSP at Kanpur on 1/10/89.
4th Conference: Sikh are safe with BSP at Ludhiana on 8/10/89.
5th Conference: S.C& S T are safe with BSP at Bilaspur on 15/10/89.
6th Conference: Christians are safe with BSP at Bangalore.
For economic salvation he launched the Kisan Mazdoor Andolan and said, “The basic idea is that those who are tilling the land and producing foodgrains are starving and those who own the land are becoming wealthy though they do nothing. We are against it. We do not want higher wages. You see whatever land is under cultivation, double of that is lying vacant, which can be cultivated by the government. So we feel that people should only work in their own farms or government farms. If people work in other’s farms, it will lead to oppression and exploitation.”
“The political power is the master key with which you can open any lock whether it is social, economic, educational or cultural lock. Very shortly we will be holding this master key in our hands.”
For achieving his political goal he first concentrated on the state of Utter Pradesh, the most popular and politically active in India which returns 85 members of Parliament out of the total 545. After fighting many generals and by-elections BSP formed the first time Dalit government in U.P. in India and implemented the mandal commission report and numerous development schemes. This helped BSP in further expanding its voter base amongst dalits, backword castes and merginally among the minorities communities extra.
BSP scored a remarkable victory amidst state terrorism in Punjab and now regarded as a very powerful movement, which has received people’s mass support in U.P, M.P, J&K, Rajasthan, Delhi and Maharashtra states. Even the election commission has recognised BSP as National Party after congress and BJP.
Kanshi Ram was known as a political strategist par excellence. Even his political opponent admit this fact. He had a knack for exploiting every situation to his benefit. He had openly declared that his singular aim is to make the Bahujan Samaj the rulers of this country.
Messiah of Humanity
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Indian Constitution
Dr. Ambedkar was one of the illustrious sons of the India who struggled throughout his life to restructure the Indian Society on humanitarian and egalitarian principles. He was not only a great national leader but also a distinguish scholar of international repute. He not only led various social movements for the upliftment of the depressed sections of the Indian Society but also contributed to the understanding of the Socio-Economic and Political problems of India through his scholarly works on caste, religion, culture, constitutional law and economic development. As a matter of fact he was an economist and his various scholarly works and speeches indicates his deep understanding of the problems faced by Indian Society.
From his very childhood, Dr. Ambedkar was forced to experience the evils of Untouchability. He being an untouchable by birth was forced to sit aside in classroom in the school. He was not allowed to touch his classmates. He could not mix and play with their fellows.
Owing to his academic brilliance, he won many government and private scholarships which helped him in attaining higher qualification from many Indian and foreign universities. He obtained a Ph.D. from Columbia in New York, D. Sc. from the London.
Having returned from London Dr. Ambedkar was given a high post in Baroda. When he reached Baroda no one came to welcome him. Worse still, even the servants in the office would not hand over the files to him. No one in the office would give him water to drink. He could not get a house to live in. On account of his low caste, he was refused a place on rent. He tried his best to get a room, but could find no shelter. He had to resign the post and returned to Bombay.
Dr. Ambedkar founded a bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha in 1924 for the upliftment of Dalits. He started Marathi fortnightly the “Mook Nayak” which means the leader of the dumb. Through this paper he awakened the dalits to fight for their rights. He arose a feeling of self respect and self confidence among the dalits and prepared for equal civil rights to the dalits.
Dr. Ambedkar launched marches to enter the Kala Ram Mandir in Nasik and drank water from the public tank at Mahad in Maharashtra. By this acts of the agitation, Dr. Ambedkar wanted to remove the mental dormancy of his people on an all India level. Dr. Ambedkar asked dalits to resist boldly all the acts of social tyranny” Goats! Lions are not sacrificed. Strengthen the organisation of the depressed classes all over the country as it is the only way for salvation.”
In 1946, Dr. Ambedkar entered into Constituent Assembly. He was taken into the Drafting Committee and there after he was elected as the Chairman of the drafting Committee. He was also taken as the Minister for law.
Dr. Ambedkar knew the difficulties for his illiterate, gullible, resource-less and helpless people to carry on the massive struggles. The “orphans of the world” he resorted to the constitutional method to solve all the social, political and economic problems.
In the constitution, Dr. Ambedkar provided an inspiring preamble ensuring justice, social, economic and political, liberty, equality and fraternity. He provided comprehensive chapters of fundamental rights and opportunities without discrimination and for securing all freedom and for reducing economic inequalities. He provided in the constitution also safe guards for the protection of rights and interests of the dalits and minorities and also equal rights to the women.
Dr. Ambedkar advocated his economic doctrine of “State socialism” in the draft constitution which he prepared and submitted to the constituent Assembly. He proposed state ownership of agriculture with a collectivised method of cultivation and a modified form of state socialism in the field of industry. Dr. Ambedkar also proposed that the above scheme of state socialism should not be left to the will of the legislature and it should be established by the law of constitution so that it will be beyond the reach of the parliamentary majority to suspend, amend or abrogate it. This guarantees state socialism while retaining parliamentary democracy. “It is only by this that one can achieve the triple objectives namely to establish socialism, retain parliamentary democracy and to avoid dictatorship”.
Dr. Ambedkar also believed that this plan of state socialism was essential for increasing productivity without closing every avenue to private sector and also distributing wealth equitably. “The main purpose behind the clause is to put an obligation on the state to plan the economic life of people on lines which would lead to highest point of productivity without closing every avenue to the private enterprise and also provide for the equitable distribution of wealth.” In other words his model of Economic Development was based on mixed economic system where state has to play active role while opening avenues for private sector.
Further Dr. Ambedkar also argued that if democracy was to live up to its principle of one man one value, it was essential to define both the economic structure as well as the political structure of the society by the law of constitution.
Thus it follows from the above analysis of Dr. Ambedkar’s strategy of development that the state has to play very active and crucial role in accelerating the growth with justice through democratic methods. The foundation of democracy would be feeble and shaky if the contradictions between political democracy, enshrined in the constitution, and social and economic inequalities, existing in our society, are not resolved. And the shape and form of economic structure should be defined and prescribed by the law of the constitution without leaving it to the will of the legislature along with that of the structure of the political democracy so that social and economic democracy consistent with political democracy is established.
But due to the strong opposition of the constitution assembly, Dr. Ambedkar could not incorporate his scheme of state socialism under fundamental rights as a part of the constitution. Having failed to achieve his target by adopting such constitutional provisions for a free India, he resorted to the different mode to annihilate or at least weaken the caste system. He took a lengthy process of counter reservation.
The Constitution of India, the world’s lengthiest written constitution was passed by the constituent assembly on November 26, 1949. It has been in effect since January 26, 1950, which is celebrated as Republic Day in India. Dr. Ambedkar said in the constituent assembly, “No matter how good a constitution may be, if the means to implement it are no good, then the constitution proves no better. If we want to establish democracy, then we must implement our social and economic ideal by means of peaceful and constitutional measures. Democracy’s life is based on liberty, equality, and fraternity. There is a total lack of equality in India. We have equality in politics, but inequality reigns in the spheres of society and economics.
Dr. Ambedkar’s knowledge in the constitutional law was extensive varied, profound and encyclopedic. The role played by Dr. Ambedkar in the making of the Constitution received the appreciation of all the members of the constituent Assembly.
On 26th November, the Constituent assembly approved the draft Constitution Bill. Then the first President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad praised the services rendered by Dr. Ambedkar in the making of the constitution and said:
“I have carefully watched the day to day activities from the Presidential seat. Therefore, I appreciate more than others with how much dedication and vitality this task has been carried out by the Drafting Committee and by its chairman Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar in particular. We never did a better thing than having Dr. Ambedkar on the Drafting Committee and selecting him as its chairman.”
Columbia University as its Special convocation on 5th June 1952 conferred the LL.D. degree (Honors Cause) on Dr. Ambedkar in recognition of his drafting the constitution of India. The citation read: “The degree is being conferred in recognition of the work done by him in connection with the drafting of India’s constitution”. The University hailed him as “one of India’s leading citizen, a great social reformer and valiant upholder of human rights.” The same university has already conferred the PhD degree on Ambedkar thirty five years before.
Gautama Buddha fought to eradicate poverty, the Dukkha. He advocated the principle of no private property. He applied this principle of no private property within the limited campus of Sanghas. He advocated the doctrine of “Majjim Patipada” or the middle course. Men should neither accumulate nor enjoy too much or too little of wealth or privileges. That became the cause of “Dukkha” for the rest of the society.
For the last and the latest social revolution Dr. Ambedkar himself adopted and advised his followers to adopt, Buddhism, the spirit of equality and justice. He took refuge in Lord Buddha on 14th October, 1956 at Nagpur along with 5 Lakh of his followers. Baba Saheb, Ambedkar was planning to organise a mass conversion in very near future, but they were found dead on the night of 6th December 1956.